Arguably, globalization affects every aspect of human life, including religion, economic, politics, cultural and socially. In the world today, globalization has different meaning and definition. It is a continuous process of integration and interaction among different people, religions, governments and companies. In most cases the entire process of globalization is administered by information technology as well as motivated by investment and international trade.
As a matter of fact Muslim brotherhood was founded in the year 1928 by a religious leader called Hassan al banna. They always advocated for the elimination of foreign influence and dominion of Muslim countries, especially in Egypt. Furthermore, at their early stages they totally opposed the secularization in all Islam nations, and promote a return of originality of Islam as stated in the Quran (Roy 50-55) The organization was first and foremost a Para-military, the Muslim brotherhood at all times maintained nationwide youth groups and cells which was possibly brought together to form a big fighting alliance. The organization as since then grew and established strong military, economic, political and educational infrastructure. With the effects of globalization the organization has led to rise of violent and militant groups, such as Islamic Jihad, Gama al-Islamiya and Hamas.
Muslim brotherhood have different view of globalization, to them it is a threat to national economy and cultural identity in both developed and developing countries. Additionally, to them it is a form of American imperialism seeking to have power over world’s economy and to enforce hegemony.
The western are more concerned of their security dilemma, they blame the Muslim brotherhood for having the intent to wipe out western ideals and plan for worldwide jihad so as to conquer western states and reinstate Islamic nations. Globalization has affected the Muslims both positively and negatively. The aspects that have affected them positively include technology, science advances, communications, and proper infrastructure, ideas exchange in terms of liberty and democracy and informatics in general. Negatively, globalization has disintegrated the identity of Muslims and disharmony among Muslims and western nations.
Globalization of Islam refers to ways in which the integration and relationship of Muslims and the entire world are reshaped by westernization, living as minority and globalization. As a matter of fact globalization has a greater impact and reach on many Muslim brotherhoods. It is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that involves assorted domains of activities and interaction. Effects of globalization among the Muslims are felt in numerous fields of human life including technological, political, military, cultural, economic, and legal and environment (Zollner 38).
According to many scholars globalization is viewed in two aspects, westernization and modernization. This is because the entire aspect of globalization among the Muslim brotherhood is labeled by these aspects. Westernization and modernization has affected ideas, images, ideologies, commodities, norms and characters of the Muslim brotherhood.
Actually, the spread of Islam brotherhood and globalization has distorted the link between specific societies, religion and territories. Approximately, a third of the world Muslim population lives as a minority group in many countries. At the core of development in the world, there are deliberate settlements of many Muslims in western societies; hence most Muslims are influenced by western values, and social norms. Globalization has led to revival of Islam among Muslim brotherhoods. The neo-fundamentalism has also influenced the development of radicalism among the Muslims youth and gaining more support from Al-Qaida in opposing westernization of Muslim as a religion.
Roy asserts that the revitalization of Islam brotherhood is as a result of efforts of westernized Muslims to declare their distinctiveness in a non-Muslim background. In this perspective, the forms of spiritual expression and revivalism ignore the laws and rules of the state. Muslims in the globe are always in minority, therefore they fell that they have no state to fight for hence they lack cohesion which leads to division.
Globalization has also affected the Muslim brotherhood in that faith has been privatized. Numerous types of religious communities associated with the minority shift to new form of radical violence, as personified by the Al-Qaida. Arguably, there exists a connection between the rising numbers of Islam brotherhood living non-Muslim westernized nations and the diversity of different religiosity.
Post-modernization and globalization has actually led to increase of political Islam in most Muslim world. Islam brotherhood is one of the most influential, largest and oldest Muslim organizations in the world; hence they should not be disputed as they are among the contenders of upcoming political rulers of the world. In political aspects, Islam brotherhoods have also enjoyed political democracy in the world (Coughlin 78). Globalization has caused a positive impact on the Islam fraternity; this is because globalization is accompanied by freedom and democracy. For example, Muslims have enjoyed some success in electoral politics in the world; these countries include Egypt, Indonesia and Palestine. With rapid globalization of Muslim world, Muslim brotherhood will become the leading voice and popular.
Culturally, globalization has disconnected Islam brotherhood religion from Islam as a culture. Facts in the world confirm that globalization has a devastating and overwhelming danger to those Islam individuals who have no cultural principles. On the other hand those Muslims rich in civilization and culture always preserve their identity and go through the threats of globalization.
Assaf assert that, Islamic brotherhoods are very few in many countries, and are termed as minorities. These organizations are economically weak and underdeveloped hence they cannot oppose cultural pressure and preserve the originality of their identity. In order to overcome these pressures the Islamic communities put more efforts in encouraging development. They begin by supporting economic and social development. The Muslim brotherhood achieves development by implementing policies and reforms that are related to the Muslims culture. These policies will uplift the weak and backward Islam brotherhood nations to developed and powerful brotherhood according to the Quran teaching.
Unity is an important factor among the Muslim brotherhood, but with globalization unity has been disturbed. The brotherhood encourages joint Islamic dealings in order to improve and build Islamic solidarity. The solidarity is probably aimed at achieving all-inclusive development in Islam communities as well as eradicating poverty, injustices, diseases and illiteracy. Furthermore, is helps in increasing awareness in matters pertaining Islam culture (Zollner 65). Muslim brotherhood has faced numerous effects culturally caused by globalization. Improving Islamic brotherhood scientifically, economically, educationally, culturally and technologically is the perfect technique used to overcome the downbeat effects of cultural form of globalization.
Globalization has led to improved mode of communication among the Muslims who are spread in all parts of the globe. It is through globalization that the world has been made into a village. The present-day internet wireless, satellite technology, radio and televisions ha completely solved the issue of distance. Through this form of technological progress, the Muslims can easily educate each other on morality and other aspects of religion.
Arguably through communication announcing of peace beauty, love, compassion of spirituality and tolerance is made easy. The dialogue framework gives room for tolerance of other cultures and sets a clear understanding of Muslim fraternity in the entire world. Western communities have a very negative perception of Islam as a religion; all these come up because of ignorance and misinformation. Therefore such communication will clear all the doubts about Islam. The stereotype way of viewing that all Muslims are terrorists and belong to the Muslim brotherhood if not a fair perception at all. Since the recent bombings in the world and above all the 9/11, the discussion on Muslims has become a complex and confusing phenomena.
Islam brotherhood, concentrate on decadence and degeneracy that arises through globalization. In real sense, without proper education, Muslim youth can easily be carried away by westernization. The western culture is just like any other culture; its modernity does not make it superior.
Roy asserts that there are different groups of Muslims in the globe. It is very important to understand the sociology of neo-fundamentalist of Muslims and politics and the radicalized features of Islam. The distinct types of Muslims are those who are totally emotionally involved to Muslim identity, this individual’s view as the indubitable precepts of their belief, on the other hand are those Muslims whose faith is an extension of politics in a westernized world.
To the understanding of many globalizations has helped the terrorists group in causing havoc in the world. Technological inventions and innovation has led to vulnerability of most Muslim nations. The world should understand that the western-based terrorists should not be linked to militant precursor in the Muslim community, but rather be linked to a frustrated and lost generation from the Muslim brotherhood who feel alienated from modernized and western society. The Muslim terrorist groups, belief that nothing good comes from westernization hence they fight back.
Perhaps the comeback to the Muslim traditions has actually been accompanied by globalization and growth of westernization. The restoration of Islam is as a result of westernization but not a conflict between them. Due to increasing momentum of neo-fundamentalism the rootless militants opt to set up an invented ummah, this is an Islam community that follows Islamic values, but are not affiliated to any territory or society.
The Islam brotherhoods have also embraced globalization in some cases. They have promoted education of Muslims through donation of books as well as providing subsidies to university students. Hence it is one of the powerful organizations in the Muslim community that puts more importance on social welfare of its people. Additionally, Islam brotherhoods based in united sates have also had a taste of America and wan to pursue the American dream (Roy 90).
Another important effect of globalization is that, westernization has led to failure of politics in Islamic countries due introduction of to introduction of democracy. The political backwardness of these nations is because of the Arabic culture and traditions (Coughlin 49). Globalization has completely relegated secularization which leads to improvement and growth of democracy.
The rate of literacy has greatly gone high due to globalization in the Islamic societies. For example, in Iran the legal age in which women gets married is nine years, but because of improvement in the literacy rate the average age has increased to approximately 23. This is a clear indication that globalization has affected the sociological aspect of the Islamic societies (Assaf 35). Some of the Al-Qaeda members claim that the Muslims are no-longer the unorganized and illiterate militants. In fact, to them Zawahiri who planned the 9/11 attack was very intelligent. He actually knew that the attack will assimilate the Muslims communities in the all world and more so those who lived in the west.
The Islamism group has tremendously over politicization of Islam religion. In fact they are in search of beneath and beyond politics, means of expression and autonomous space. They build their politics using accomplishment of sharia (Roy 88). Additionally, Salafi-jihadist and Al Qaeda nowdays use religion as well as network of preachers to propagate jihad. Globalization has led to easy networking in the all world.
The 9/11 incident led to development and emergence of organizations of interpreters of both the Al Qaeda and Bin laden. With technology, most of these intellectuals came up with numerous web sites. Actually, these web sites generated tremendous effects on the understanding of jihad and Al Qaeda (Assaf 107). Among the Islam society there are numerous groups, those who follow the old ideologies and the youth who have come up with western cultures and ideologies. Jihad thinkers have criticized the bombings carried out by the young Muslim jihad. To many, London bombings were a shameful and disgraceful act, with no bravery, manhood nor morality.
Most of the Muslims are in societies that have been transformed by globalization and global migration, hence they are forced to eat unique food, interact, dress and adapt strange lifestyles. According to Muslim brotherhood, globalization is degrading the Islam values as well as religious practices. Due to these changes this causes tension within Muslims and the natives of the westernized countries. Globalization also leads to culture shock; some of the norms among Muslims are normal practices in other regions in the world.
Just like the rest of the globe, Muslim brotherhood and societies have been overwhelmingly affected by westernization and globalization. Live of Muslims have been changed, cultures, thoughts, values as well as intellect of creative expression. Others have welcomed it, while others have decided to defend their cultural and religious beliefs. The Muslims have the anxiety to defend their social institutions, traditions, linguistic purity and identity.
Perhaps Roy concludes that westernization and globalization are unstoppable in the world. The best option is to embrace change and assimilate to the good aspects of change. Those Muslims in the west and who still live in Muslim nations should put more focus of individual issues. Globalization come with re-islamisation therefore individuals need to reconstruct their attitudes on religion. The new westernized Islam religion is more appealing to the young people, educated and frustrated. It gives identity to all Muslims in the world regardless of territory; furthermore it builds the solidarity of Muslim brotherhood.
The entire world should not blame the Muslim community for the attacks carried out by terrorist groups. With technology and globalization suicide bombers and terrorist has completely boosted the activities of the terrorist group. As a matter of fact, most of the leaders of the terror community are those who moved out of the Muslim brotherhood. The recent killings of Osama bin laden put the world into jubilation including the Muslim community. According to Roy, it is of great importance to distinguish between religion and culture. The terrorist and Al Qaeda are the youth who have uprooted themselves from true worship. Most of them are rebels to westernization and globalization.
In the world today the religious and cultural differences don’t justify conflicts between Islam community and the west. The conflict provides a foundation of cooperation and recognition of culture and unity. The world has been converted into a global village, therefore the west and Islam society should go into dialogue. In this way individuals will learn to accept change, and stop destruction. Globalization radically gives all people in the world a chance to construct individual social, political and religious identities.
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