Before the Civil War the landowners in the United States had absolute power over their slaves. The slaves, in turn, have been forced to live life in the most brutal and unacceptable conditions. Because of this attitude slaves often died from exhaustion, starvation and torture, which often served as a punishment for even the slightest infraction. Each slave owner considered himself a landowner and aristocrat, which has the full right to the steps above. It is a known fact, that slaves were mostly blacks, therefore racist attitudes towards this race literally penetrated all levels of society. Moreover, the Southern states before the Civil War in the United States 1861-1865 epitomized the political and social center of racism.
The most aggressive political circles of the South set the main task of the absolute introduction of slavery in the United States economy. North was much more liberal in terms of racism and slavery. Southerners are deliberately held back the development of fair capitalism and all the forces opposed to the new currents, reaching the other end of the country. As a result, the South seceded from the Union and raised a rebellion in order to promote and plantation slavery in the remaining states. Obviously, this was the prerequisite to ensure that the American Civil War was finally unleashed.
After the Civil war the “New South” began reinventing itself. The south was completely destroyed by the war, as a result – this needed to be rebuilt, so did the government of the Southern States. New laws were written to provide the African Americans with equal rights but at the same time blacks were still treated differently.
The New South started reinventing itself from rebuilding houses, farms, stores, buildings. Further steps were undertaken concerning slaves: slave owners were The former slave owners now had allow African Americans to vote, study, run for office. It took more than 100 years for African Americans to get equalized in rights with white men. With the help of three amendments to the U.S. Constitution this goal was achieved. Another point in reinventing was The Reconstruction Acts, they forced the Southern citizens to agree and give the same equal rights to the blacks. However, with all the steps that were undertaken to reinvent the South it still had some failures. First of all a lot of states rejected the 13th amendment. Moreover, a lot of people did not agree in granting new rights to the blacks. The president and the government did not have an agreement on how to reconstruct the South. Finally, there was a misunderstanding and no agreements between the parties. That is why the truly reinvention of the New South had failed.
After the Civil War the Indian problem arose as well. When Ulysses S. Grant was elected to be the president of the United States in 1868, more than 250,000 American Indians all over the country were controlled under the judicature of a federal Indian policy. Many policy makers and reformers wanted to bring changes which will produce positive achievements as civilizing American Indians by means of implementing educational system, implementation of Christianity, and teaching them on how to support themselves and how to survive in the new world. Moreover, the need to change the Indian Bureau was on the agenda. Besides the "new" way to manage and control American Indians, there was another purpose also: to contain the tribes of American Indians for the advantage of non-Indians by means of excision obstacles to American and European colonies all over former Indian territory. This problem affected the whites from the colonial times, but became particularly important during the Civil War times. Specific reservation systems were created which was viewed by the President Grant as a solution to the problem. To keep the Native Indians out of the way, Grant’s Peace policy intended to relocate the tribes and to improve their living standards, by peaceful ways, first of all, in order to educate them as well as to provide them with food and clothing until they turn out to be self-sufficient society.
With all the new changes the life of Indians became much harder. First of all they were given much smaller territories by the government, in comparison to those that they were promised. The main purpose of the top officials was to turn the American Indians into farmers and Christians, which would contradict and abolish traditional lifestyle of Indians. This transition was almost impossible for the people.
Finally, the New Peace policy has its own advantages and disadvantages. However, the true benefits of it receive the government, not the population.
"ABC-CLIO SCHOOLS." Untitled Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 July 2013. <http://www.historyandtheheadlines.abc-clio.com/ContentPages/ContentPage.aspx?entryId=1171686¤tSection=1161468>.