The concerns made by the author of this article have to do with the environmental impact of creating artificial snow and maintaining snow solid without melting. Maintaining the snow for indoor or outdoor skiing games requires a lot of energy. For example, Dubai, despite being located in a region with a desert-like environment, maintains a 22,500 square meters snow-covered area for sports. It is estimate that about 1000MWh of energy are used annually to maintain the building at a temperature below the freezing point. The fact that the electricity is generated from natural gas means greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere. It is estimated that 500 tons are released.
The paper flows relatively well enough. This is because the makes a claim and supports it throughout the paper. It is important for the reader to know which claim the author is supporting throughout the paper. However, some of the ideas in the body paragraphs are detached from each other and it may seem like he is talking more about the environment than about his initial claim.
2. (b) i
The problem is that the process of making snow for indoor skiing areas is inefficient because ice has to be kept frozen for 24 hours per day to avoid evaporation and melting.
2. (b) ii
The current solutions involve using spray guns installed on the ceiling of indoor ice rinks or on the slopes of the skiing sites. The surface of the snow is then maintained cold through refrigeration and insulation. Aluminum oxide is also mixed with water, frozen and then sprayed over the snow to keep it solid.
2. (b) iii
The most promising technology involves the use of aluminum oxide, which is a thermal conductor to cover the snow in a form of a thermal blanket to keep it frozen.
Headings provide details on each section effectively. For example, the introduction gives a brief background on the topic of artificial snow and provides a thesis statement which guides the rest of the paper. The second heading: “Developments” is appropriate because it provides examples on developments on solving the problem in question.
The figures and tables are not easy to understand because some of the finer details are not visible. In addition, the author uses abbreviations to represent parts in the figure but does not provide a key.
The figures and tables do not help make the paper more concise because they are not visible enough.
This paper may be improved by proper use of definite articles and adverbs. Indentation of the beginning of sentences should also be done. Proper referencing should also be done.
Another concern with this paper is that it does not have a conclusion.
The strength of this paper is that the author articulates his ideas on maintenance of snow. His ideas indicate good research on the subject.
The paper flows well because the author gives introductory sentences into the subject and subdivides subsequent portions of the paper using headings which enable the reader to follow the ideas well. However, the subheading “Implementation” is misleading because the author proceeds to explain how the technology of using the nervous systems of insects can benefit society.
2. (b) i
The need is the development of a robotic system based on the nervous system of an insect such as a moth or bee. This system may then be used in a number of applications such as in making autonomous robots that can fight in war zones in place of humans.
2. (b) ii
There are two main solutions for this problem. The first uses the sensory system of a bee while the other uses that of a moth. The honeybee approach uses color recognition in a system that enables the robot to track color red. In the moth-based robot, they used a brain-machine hybrid. This hybrid uses odor searching behavior to show how moths process information.
2. (b) iii
The honeybee method is the most promising solution. This is because the moth-based approach is complicated as it relies on an order plume. The bee-base approach is easier because it is based on an easier sight recognition system.
The headings provide details about the sections. However, the heading “Implementation” is not appropriate because the section following it is about the benefits that may result from the adoption of the solutions suggested.
The figures are easy to understand because they are well labeled and sized in a manner that the reader can see.
The tables help clarify and improve the paper. However, this may be improved further by explaining the diagrams. The diagrams used are not explained well.
This paper may be improved by better sentence structure and by explaining the figures and diagrams used.
The background does not provide a thesis or claim of the paper.
Firstly, the author should improve their sentence structure. For example, the sentence “The robot that uses the technology observed by the moth” is a hanging sentence which does not make sense. Secondly, the author should explain the figures used in a better manner. For example, figure 2 may be well-labeled but the different processes involved are not explained.
There are various strengths in this paper. For example, the concept of using the nervous system of an insect as the brain center for a robot is well-articulated. It is simple and precise. In addition, the general flow of the paper is commendable.