Arguably, American Revolution brought to an end the two century British rule. This revolution led to the creation of modern United States of America. As a matter of fact, the era was disturbing and exhilarating; it was a dislocation for others while to some it was a time process meant to bring changes. Certainly, in the stir of the revolution came various events such as ratification and drafting of the constitution .Another event was the rebellion of slaves due to contrast between proclamation of liberty and slavery. The entire revolution process led to social, economic, and political changes. The changes were either positive or negative depending on the situations and implications. Some changes favored slaves while some favoured the British colonialists.
The revolutions in 1760s can be widely elaborated in two sets of situation. One of these situations was the momentous social and political changes that took place. This changes disrupted ways of life, outmoded institutions, formation of the constitution as well as bringing injustices and hardships. It is this social and political climate in England that created the new picture of Europe. Most of these conditions become particularly prevalent after the 1760s seven years war, (Middlekauff, 2005).
Perhaps, the important political similarity between British and America in 1760s was that both nations were growing and working towards international mercantilist powers. Certainly, this is the main way to describe the genesis of American revolutionary war. For Americans, increasing agricultural and commercial prosperity became the array of the day. This process altered the older bureaucratic ways of agricultural hierarchy. For example, Adams and Madison embraced the concept of republicans. The mercantilism affected both political and social aspects of life; this is because he fully demanded government regulation in the economy.
Generally, this meant that the colonies affiliated to America had their economy dictated by plutonic London legislative body. The mercantilism changed the political climate whose main interest was to gain American independence. In England, numerous social reforms took place, for example, sanitation, prison reforms, and urban life, (Cogliano, 2008).
Immigrations in England doubled the population. The increase in population affected sociopolitical conditions in Britain. It became clear that was an increase of demand in basic needs, infrastructure, as well as political governance. It also led to increase in the expenses needed to maintain the colonies in terms of security and management, (Middlekauff, 2005).
The colonies were divided into distinct regions; the coastal region and backcountry. The back country was along Appalachian mountain. Each region lived different politically, socially, and economically. This was because the region was different in terms of people, resources, and climate. The New England carried out business due to its location in the coastal region.
After the French Indiana war, British had accumulated a lot of that. After the war, the debt nearly doubled, statistically it rose from £72,000,000 to £13o, 000,000. The expenses were actually expected to remain at a high level, this was because Bute ministry made a decision in 1763 to maintain 10,000 soldiers in the American colonies. In order to increase revenue to counter the debt, British House of Commons decided to introduce sugar tax and stamp tax. The tax varied in different sectors and professional fields.
High tax rate was levied on college students and lawyers. This was intended to reduce the number of professionals in the colonists as well as generating income. The taxation policy implemented affected American colonies, (Middlekauff, 2005). British argued that the introduction of tax was to pay for the security that Americans received as well as reducing the debt. This policy of taxation brought up a lot of arguments for and against. British in their own way tried to justify the importance of taxation, while American colonies resisted.
Unexpectedly, to the surprise of British, the stamp tax ignited American colonial opposition. This marked the beginning of American Revolution. According to the colonists, the act and laws that controlled taxation were beyond doubt unreasonable. The colonists wanted one of them to be in parliament. They resisted the move claiming that they would not pay tax if they are not represented, (Brown, 2000) Colonists, did not see why they were to pay taxes to pay back the money used in the French Indian war, they themselves were the first to go to war, meaning they wasted a lot. The brutality carried out by British redcoats, was totally ironical. The British armies were paid to provide security, but not to kill. The colonists used all means to justify their resistance.
The British could have managed North America through diplomacy and equality in all aspects of life. The acts that were implemented in the House of Commons should have been applicable to both British and American colonists, at an equal rate. Perhaps, diplomacy and equality could have done it better. A new means of taxation could be used rather than the stamp tax. In Canada reaction was different because its colonies were French speaking, (Cogliano, 2008).
During the 1760s and 1770s, colonists in northern America found themselves at odds continuously with British policies regarding frontier policy and taxation. They were in constant protests against these brutal policies. There repeated protests did not work, leading to closure of Boston port as well as assertion of martial law. Continental congress cooperated with Americans in trying to enforce a boycott and coordinating resistance to the British rule. Colonists always challenged British officials, government, regardless of not getting support from loyalists, (Cogliano, 2008).
The British had a lot of debts to settle; hence they decided to introduce taxes in 1763 so as to offset its debts. The economic situation was made worst off later in 1763. This was caused by implementation of the currency act. Perharps, this act prohibited the printing of money by the colonies.
Other actions of colonist was protesting and boycotting against the British, this protests led to Boston massacre in which colonists died, the shooting took place in 1770. This continued implementations of oppressive acts as well as the massacre triggered the declaration of independence, (Brown, 2000).
The grievances of colonists were very justified. This is because the taxation was not legitimate and its policies applied to the colonists alone. In fact colonists tax doubled the reasons for the payment of tax were not justified. The British claimed that they taxed the colonists so as to pay for protection, which was not the case.
Declaration of independence was adopted by continel express on 1776. It is one of the cherished symbols by Americans that signified enduring moments and liberty under the British rule. During this period the nations that were at war with Great Britain declared themselves independent. Its declaration took different forms. It was published and distributed to the public. The most prominent version of declaration was a sighed copy.
Many arguments came up after the declaration of independence. The declaration led to freedom of religion, posit for happiness as well as putting into consideration the voice of the people. Certainly, it brought to an end, most of the oppression that Americans were facing. Freedom was what the Americans wanted, for example to be move out of the brutal British rule. Additionally, Americans were concerned about the discriminative way of taxation as well as representation, (Middlekauff, 2005). Other colonies in the world received fair treatment from Spain and France.
Declaration of independence marked the beginning of a journey in America history and the whole world. It was particularly significant to America because it led to independence and freedom from King George III. It led to fairness and voice in their grievances. It eliminated discrimination that existed under the British rule. The philosophy stating all men should stand equal became a fundamental law and principle.
American revolutionary war took place between the years 1775-1783. It began as a war between British colonies and Great Britain, and finally came to an end in a global war. American troops were lightly armed, no uniforms as well as limited training. The only advantage they had was that they outnumbered the British troops. In fact most of them went to war for a short time. They also fought in marines, (Brown, 2000)
Most of the weakness of American troops was attributed to lack of logistics and powder. On the other hand British armies were well equipped with weapons. In order to outdo the American army, British joined forces with Germany nations so as to supply troops.
The American troops fended off the British troops because they were many in numbers. In fact they could not manufacture many weapons, but they supplemented what they had with those of surrendered British troops.
Brown, R. (2000). Major problems in the Era of the American Revolution, 1760-1791(Second
Edition).Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Cogliano, F (2008). Revolutionary America, 1763-1815: A Political History. New York: Routledge.
Middlekauff, R. (2005). The Glorious Cause, the American Revolution, 1763-1789. New York, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.