Child labor is the employment of children to work on a regular basis. Currently, in most countries child labor is a form of exploitation and declared illegal. In the past, child labor was widespread, but after the emergence and recognition of the concepts of safety and the rights of children in the region of child labor began to decline gradually. Among the types of child labor exist in civilized countries, is the work in show business (movies, theater, pop). Children are often involved in various criminal activities, including prostitution and pornography. In some African countries are arming children and forced to participate in hostilities.
United Nations and the International Labor Organization consider child labor as exploitation. Article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child guarantees "to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous to health or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to their health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development."
The Causes of Child Labor
According to the UN, only in 2011, there were more than 250 million children are forced to work in very difficult conditions. Interestingly, the more popular uses child labor in Asia - there illegally operated more than 153 million children in Africa - 80 million and 17 million - in Latin America.
Not so long ago the police a small West African nation of Burkina Faso with the help of experts from Interpol held a rally for the release of the children who were forced to work on a gold mine. During the operation were released more than 400,000 children and adolescents working in the mine. As noted by the representative of the Ghana Police Pasiens Kvayona, children were forced to work in very difficult conditions - in narrow close mines, to a depth of 70 meters, with no fresh air. Interestingly, the children are not paid a salary. Now they are put in shelters, and local authorities with the help of Interpol began searching for the parents. In the present case were detained 73 people who have been indicted. By the way, last year the Ghana police during such raids freed more than 250 children who were forced into prostitution.
According to the International Labor Organization, more than 120 items of goods produced in the world of children. Not so long ago was even accused the world famous company Nestle, which according to analysts of the International Labor Organization on the chocolate industry was illegally involved many minors.
At the request of the UN, the main reason why children fall into the hands of slaveholders or who force them to illegal employment is poverty. In China, for example, especially in the south - west of the country, where the population is characterized by extreme poverty, child labor market is very wide - you can even find children seven to eight years. All minors are working in extremely hazardous occupations for their labor receiving low wages. Of course, none of them are not officially listed in the workplace, and the mortality rate among them is very high. Many parents actually sell their children to pay off existing debts or improve their financial situation.
Slaveholders for the children for various reasons are quite some interest. First, forcing a minor to perform a job much easier than adults, and secondly, children are less demanding, and their labor is cheaper. For example, in Ghana, many children who are illegally operated in heavy and dangerous jobs, they get only a sixth of the minimum rates for wages in the country.
The Fight Against Child Slavery
The world community has long sounded the alarm: slavery issue not only affects the third world countries, but also advanced state.
Not so long ago, in the summer of this year, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs raised the question about the problems of child slavery is not just anywhere, but in the U.S.! Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Alexander Lukashevich said in his speech that in the U.S. today is quite developed trafficking, but the State Department is strongly silences. States, he said, greatly concerned with the problems of the slave trade throughout the world, but deliberately did not notice some serious problems in the region.
The report, he said, that according to the NGO " Polaris Project " in the country every year more than one hundred thousand minors involved in prostitution, in pornographic films shooting against their will. And orphans or foster children into adulthood, find themselves on the street and then into the hands of traffickers.
The problem of child slavery, according to the International Labor Organization - is the prerogative of the Third World. In particular, in the Asian countries on tobacco, cotton is widely used child labor. Also the problem includes North Korea, Sudan, Cuba and Iran.
Nevertheless, experts say the International Labor Organization to fight child slavery possible. For this it is necessary to actively develop the backward regions, to improve their socio-economic situation, in every way to support the struggle of the local authorities with the facts of the illegal exploitation of child labor. Such measures should be applied to all States that are at risk, i.e. the States of South and West Africa, Latin America. Otherwise this shameful problem of the modern world and will remain the most popular.