In American Corrections system, offenders in various crimes are normally physically confined and are not allowed to exercise personal freedom. This is because the state imposes legal penalty to offender because of crimes committed. There are belief and doctrines, commonly known as tenants who are normally acknowledged as authoritative and are applied as correction measures (Mihail, and Wintoki, 2009).
This model is concerned more about why offenders commit the crime and actions to be taken to develop convicts situations to be better. When a criminal is convicted, he is sentenced for a period; enough to make sure has changed. This period is determined by the court (Jason, & Tim, 2005). The corrections systems are structured to treat and cure offenders. In prisons, medical officers are the only known professionals who are concerned with curing the offenders and have to take care of the sick prisoners. In this model, cure is also explained in rehabilitation way as a corrective surgery, which eliminates physical impediments to social rehabilitation ((Jason, & Tim, 2005). In other cases, prisoners are usually invited to volunteer as subjects for social and medical research and given some remunerations after this. While this is expected to cure a prisoner, the prisoner firstly is a criminal and being a patient comes second.
One of the strengths in this model is that the criminal is taken away from the victims, and this reduces the amounts of crimes they can commit. They are secluded at a place where the deficiencies to behave is repaired so that when they go back to the society they avoid crime. During this seclusion, the society enjoys less crime environment. Secondly is that, under the chains of prisons, the prisoners are subjected to harsh conditions. By doing this, the authorities aim at convincing them to keep away from any criminal behaviour and to testify to others the consequences of such behaviours (Mihail, and Wintoki, 2009). They will proclaim to others intending to engage in criminal acts, thus the fear of being punished over rules whatever benefits one would benefit and any pleasure brought by illegal activity.
This model has enjoyed its share of criticism. The weakness is that while the charged criminals remain isolated, those who are outside increase the number of criminal activities to fill the “vacuum” left by the criminals behind bars. The method been labelled as artificial as prisons are just artificial methods, which interfere with offender`s capacity to develop a society free from crime (Zhou, 2007).
Failures and disorganization in a community is evident when there are high cases of crime. The community model main aim is correction, which entails rebuilding and building social and securing for offenders a place in the normal functioning of the community (Schindler, 2009). The model advocates for alternatives of incarceration by proposing correction methods such as community service, probation and halfway houses. Schindler (2009) postulates that corrections should not be psychological, rather, it should be a program that increase the offender`s chance to be successful people. Programs such as probation increase the chances of adjusting back to the society because the offenders engage in educational and vocational programs
Treatment approaches incorporated by this model have been proven effective as an inmate-led program on motivation is built in the offenders and spirit of positive attitude towards hard work. Critics have argued that the goal of correction is normally to punish offenders. This is so because they deserve to be punished. However, this model fails to give enough punishment to offenders. The correctional system has failed to reduce the increasing crime rate. It has also failed to produce predictive judgement concerning the offender’s behaviour and rehabilitate offenders. The criteria used in the selecting prisoners to be released to the community have also had its share of criticism.
Crime Control model
The model aims at enforcing law, maintaining order as a way of decreasing crime rate in the community and protecting people from injustice. Repression of crime is of much importance as there are increased prosecutorial, police powers, and prioritizes the ability of the state to protect its citizens (Hazel 2004). The criminal justice concentrates on vindicating the victims’ rights. All legal technicalities which could limit police are eliminated, and police powers are extended to enable them investigate and arrest offenders with much ease. This also makes it easier for them to seize and convict the criminals.
Crime control has a significant weakness as the model assumes that the “alleged criminal” is guilty of the offence even before he faces the court. Actions of the police and prosecutors are fully supported ((Hazel 2004). There is that analogy that the “alleged criminal” is guilty unless it is proven otherwise. The amounts of appeals and plea-bargaining are also remarkably limited here. The values in this model are only based on repressing crime. This does not put into consideration that it no always that police will be correct in their fact-finding (Hazel 2004).
After a community model has been fully developed, it reduces violence and increases program participation. It becomes less expensive to run and brings a new culture to the offenders that closely mirror the community life in which people are expected to function. There is a replacement of conflict of traditional jail with a new spirit, which advocates support and cooperation, and in doing this; it promotes a long-term change in behaviour. This values make the community model to suit today’s era more than the other models.
Hazel C., (2004) "Combating financial crime: regulatory versus crime control approaches", Journal of Financial Crime, 11 (1), pp.45 – 55
Jason L. P., & Tim O., (2005). "The Bio-Medical Model and Ageing: Towards an Anti-Reductionist Model?” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 25 (9), pp.27 - 40
Mihail M., M. and Wintoki, B. (2009). Legal institutions, democracy and financial sector development. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.171-196
Schindler, F. (2009) "Correlation structure of real estate markets over time", Journal of Property Investment & Finance, 27 (6); 579 – 592
Zhou, Q. H. (2007). "High capacity scanning correlation system and the analysis of correlation plane displacement," New York