A comprehensive understanding of the term theoretical lens is first attained by breaking the subject into two; theory and lens. Prevalently, a theory is a set of words or ideas put forth to elucidate or rather reveal the existence of a phenomenon. In this context, the theory is used to explain cultural perspective in a given subject, child development. Conversely, a lens from a lay’s perspective is a transparent object used to view or magnify the given object, thereby enabling the user, to ascertain a clear understanding of the viewed material. However, from the literature perspective, a lens is an instrument that enables people in a society to view the societal occurrence differently. A theoretical lens, therefore, enables the society to examine critically and fully understand a given topic, for instance, social-political and cultural issues in a society. In so doing, theoretical lens enables the society to view the mentioned subjects from a different perspective.
Taking Renaissance society as our focus, the theoretical lens of the early modern era was unique. The mentioned society had a pleasant attitude and perception towards children and childhood development. The society, adults, views the children as a delicate and innocent being that desperately needed protection. Moreover, the said adults firmly believed that children needed training. Interesting to note is that an English Philosopher, John Locke, challenged the mentioned society to view children as people borne with blank brains (Milne 77). Consequently, the philosopher implores the parents to fill the blank brain with pleasant books rather than usage of force. The theoretical lens in this case enabled myriad families to train the children on proper and healthy etiquette. On a similar note, the adults educate the children on the imperative of respect to all. To espouse the childhood development, the Elizabethan England insisted that each parish must take a responsibility to care completely for the poor, desperate and needy children.
The global world has put forth concerted efforts to salvage the myriad rise of child mortality rate. Just to mention but a few, the United Nations initiated goal 4 and 5 to mitigate the risen mortality rate. The Millennium Development goal 4 has solely put weight on the reduction of child mortality rate. To be specific, the mentioned goal intends to lower the child mortality rate by two-thirds. The reduction goal set for a period between 1990 and 2015. On a similar note, the Millennium goal 5 focuses on the improvement of maternal health. Notably, there has been an exponential rise in maternal mortality rate, the goal 5 intend to slash the rise by three-quarters. The reduction is scheduled to take a course in a period between 1990 and 2015.
Worst to note is the fact that the state for world mortality rate has soared to 37.61. On the long list, Afghanistan is leading by 119.41, the mentioned figure explicitly explain that the myriad number of children perish. South Africa has current mortality rate of 42.5, while Bangladesh is slightly above South Africa at 47.3. On the other hand, Philippian infant mortality stood as low as 18.19. Interesting to note is that the global world has been noted to make remarkable strides in the achievement of the Millennium goals (Bhutta et al 15). Various programs have been initiated to reduce the prevalent mother to child HIV infection. Similarly, children from part of the globe have been vaccinated against the predominance of menacing ailments, for instance, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.
The world is now focusing on the ways of reducing mortality rate of the newborns. Findings have shown that 40% on the newborns in the 35 countdown countries succumb to the mentioned mortality rate. Secondly, the world is also putting much attention on the breast feeding of infants. Sensitization of entire breastfeeding within the first six months will reduce the infant mortality rate. Thirdly, the world is seriously concern with the prevention and mitigation of infectious diseases, for instance, malaria, pneumonia, measles and diarrhea.
The best ways to forestall the infant mortality rate is to educate the populace on the potency family planning. Also, the government should come up with cost-effective interventions to counter the rapid infectious diseases. Further, the government should invest heavily on the programs that intend to enlighten mother on HIV transmission from mother to infants. Additionally, government should conduct vaccination on infant against infectious diseases as a way of reducing the infant mortality rate (Martin & Fabes 127). Imperative to note is the fact that a good percentage of infant have died mysteriously from preventive diseases.
Puritans had a different view on children. The Puritans solely viewed the children as a human being destitute of spiritual knowledge. The Puritans believed that it was the responsibility of the society to bring children to the spiritual life. Most importantly, Puritans emphasized on the spiritual welfare of the child. Puritans view children as blessing from God hence they deserve love from parents. In view of the Puritan theoretical lens on children, they trained and educated children on religious matters. Interesting to note is that parents in Puritan society incessantly prayed that children should become a source of glory to their Lord. Puritans educated children on several biblical issues, for instance, covenant of works, covenant of redemption and covenant of grace. Covenant simply synonymized an agreement between God and his people.
Enlighten Philosopher, John Locke, had a slight difference on his view on children. The philosopher viewed children as a blank slate. Further, he asserted that the environment shaped children behavior and character. Conversely, the Puritan viewed children as complete blessings from God. Also, the Puritan strongly believed that the spiritual well-being shaped the behavior of children (Milne 214). John Locke critically examined the Puritan practices and argued that the Puritan children would grow with only one perspective; spiritual life. Arguably, the Philosopher preferred that the children education should be inclusive of all the life necessities.
The American of today has viewed education as an inevitable tool for child development. Modern American has observed that education is a basic need, and no child should be subjected to hard labor. Also, the American has argued strongly that schooling should be made compulsory to all children. In upholding the educational idea, the Americans have paid tax to fund educational programs. Similarly, the transition from the medieval age to the new America has explicitly shown how education has transformed the modern America. Educational reformers, for instance, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, discovered a child as an object of study. Similar, Horace Mann sensitized the society on the potency of education in the society. The efforts by various educational reformers coupled with cultural practices have completely led to the rebirth of modern American.
Bhutta, Zulfaqar A., et al. “The Lancet” Maternal and Child Undernutrition: Global and Regional Exposures and Health Consequences 371 (2008): 243-260.
Martin, Carol Lynn., and Fabes, Richard. Discovering Child Development. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2009. Print.
Milne, Brian. The History and Theory of Children’s Citizenship in Contemporary Modern Societies. New York: Springer, 2013. Print.