Staging of kidney disease in patients involves assigning the stage of the disease based on the level to which the kidney of the patient in question is infected. Chronic kidney disease is defined as either kidney damage or GFR less than 60ml/min//1.73m squared for three months or more. Staging is important because it makes the work of the medical practitioners easy in terms of patient treatment (Hamm, 2010). As a result of staging, medical practitioners are in a better position of knowing the exact patients with the most advanced level of kidney infection with relative ease. This makes it very efficient for the medical practitioners in terms of service delivery. They are at a better position to determine which patients might be in need of urgent care and thus, act accordingly in accordance with the stage of the disease assigned to each given patient.
Renal disease might affect the effects of many drugs especially in cases here the drugs are renaly cleared. Doses should therefore be reduced in cases of renal disease in order to avoid overdosing the body (Henrich, 2009). As a result of many drugs being cleared through the renal system, renal disease might affect this process entirely. This means that the drugs are not removed from the body at the rate which they are supposed to be removed. If the patient continues taking the drug, this might lead to a scenario where thee patient gets an overdose of the drug without their knowledge. This overdose is as a result of the patient continuing with the normal dose despite the previous dose not being effectively cleared from the body.
There have been reports of rare congenital abnormalities in infants in the case of mothers treated with high doses of fluconazole which is an antifungal. This treatment was administered within the first trimester of pregnancy (WHO, 2012). Thus, certain antifungals such as fluconazole are detrimental to fetal development especially if administered in high doses. Mothers should therefore be very careful with antifungal intake during their entire pregnancy. The correct course of action in this scenario is for the pregnant mother to seek expert opinion on which antifungal medication will have little to n effect on the health of the developing fetus..
Most of the available antibiotics are safe to take within the course of pregnancy. This is because the risk of not taking the antibiotics greatly outweighs the risk of taking them. Antibiotics have little to no effect on the development of the fetus as well as the health of the mother during the pregnancy (Parker, 2012). If a mother fails to take a prescribed antibiotics on account of pregnancy, the effects on the health of the mother as well as that of the fetus might be devastating compared to the effects of taking the prescribed antibiotics.
Drug resistant TB is resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin which are among the most powerful TB treatment drugs (Dyer, 2010). The future of pharmacology as far as drug resistant TB is concerned involves extensive use of second line drugs. Another alternative involves modification of the first line drugs to make sure that they are capable of handling this new mutated form of TB. The second line drugs however have more diverse effect than the first line drugs. This is because the drug resistant TB is resistant too first line treatment dugs. These first line treatment drugs are friendlier to the patient in terms of their side effects on the human body as well as their pricing.
Bedaquiline is an antibiotic used to fight bacteria. This drug has certain adverse side effects. The most prevalent side effect of the drug is the fact that it affects the rhythm of the heart depending on the dosage in which it is taken (keith, 2011). This can affect the heart in its entirety. As a result of the drug affecting the rhythm of the heart, the patient might experience an increased heart rate or a reduced heart rate. Prolonged intake of this drug might have very severe consequences on the heart of the patient in question. These consequences include a permanent effect on the rhythm of the heart of the patient in question which might even develop into heart disease.
Drug resistant gonorrhea is a new strain of gonorrhea that is resistant to microbial which were previously used as a first line treatment for the disease. This means that the new strain of the disease is non-responsive to the conventional means of treatment applied in its situation. Drugs that are supposed to suppress the effects of this disease are not working in the instance of the development of this new strain of drug resistant gonorrhea. Drug resistant syphilis is also resistant to the recommended first line treatment options for the disease (Rubins, 2010). The pharmacology options at this stage are very limited as the known treatments for these two diseases are restricted to the first line treatment options. The implications on the population area population suffering from gonorrhea which has no known treatment. This might lead to rampant spread of gonorrhea throughout the entire population because the medical field no longer has means of suppressing the disease. The case is the same in the instance of drug resistant syphilis.
In the case of drug resistant gonorrhea, there has been an increased usage of ceftriaxone (Michaud, 2014). This drug has however proved to not be as effective as expected in terms of its capacity to effectively deal with this new strain of gonorrhea. The medical community is now looking at new antimicrobials which are better suited to deal with the new strain of gonorrhea.
The new anticoagulants differ greatly from warfarin in terms of their course of action. For starters the new anticoagulants are much lighter than warfarin. Rivaroxaban is a competitive reversible antagonist of activated factor X. Factor X is the active component of the prothrombinase complex that catalyses conversion of prothrombin. Warfarin inhibits the synthesis of vitamin k dependent calcium dependent clotting factors (Kasper, 2011).
The newer agents are more cost effective than warfarin. This is because they are easier to manufacture than warfarin (Becker, 2010). As a result of their low manufacturing cost, their retail cost also reduces significantly in comparison to that of warfarin. Taking into account the side effects of warfarin on the human body, these new options are also friendlier to the economy because they tend to promote a healthier work force. A healthier work force means that the economy can also grow steadily due to the presence of a work force that is health and on the move in terms of economical development.
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Michaud, C. (2014). Gonorrhea. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.
Parker, S. (2012). Medicine. London: Dorling Kindersley.
Rubins, A. (2010). Epidemiology of syphilis in Latvia. New York: U.S. G.P.O. :.
keith, m. (2011). The use of bedaquiline in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: interim policy guidance.. Chicago: United Nations University Press.
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