Egypt is one of the ancient and fascinating civilizations of the world, located in the valley of Nile. Menes is believed to unify Egypt and Memphis was made his capital circa 3000BC. The king was considered next to god, he was above all the priests and sole owner of whole Egypt.
Early society of Egypt was polytheistic, Egyptians used to believe in many gods. God Ptah was famous throughout the country. They also used to worship falcons, dogs, cats, crocodiles considering them the representatives of various gods.
In ancient Egypt a larger part of the society was involved in the agricultural activities, land was exceedingly fertile in the Valley of Nile River. People were also involved in trade activities with neighboring countries. Egyptians are known for their rituals of unique burial system. The method of mummification is found in the Egypt only; they were ahead of their contemporary societies in many ways. Egyptians were far ahead in architecture, some of their ancient works are matchless.
Society was patriarchal and people used to do hunting and participated in various social activities. Egyptians were involved in many artistic activities and that way they preserved their art and culture.
Mesopotamia is said to be the first civilization of world. The region is located between two rivers namely Tigris and Euphrates. In the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia the king was considered successor of the god enjoyed a noble position, it was contrary to the Egypt where king was considered the advent of God.
Since Mesopotamians were located between two rivers, they had the privilege on agriculture and their lands were highly fertile. They were fully dependant on agriculture but being close to the rivers gave them benefits of fishing also.
The religious believe of Mesopotamia was polytheistic like Egypt. Enlil was believed to be the mightiest among their gods. Other gods were Eridu, Marduk, Ashur, Sin and many more.
Mesopotamians were well known architects, several ancient monuments evidence of their rich architecture. A number of monuments are present that tells the modern society about their richness in Mesopotamian Empire.
Society was patriarchal like any other contemporary societies. People used to take interest in various social and other activities like music, hunting etc.
Persian Empire was believed to be established by Cyrus during 530 BC. Persia in its early days evidenced many wars and lastly succumbed to Islamic attacks in approx 224 A.D.
People of Persia were involved in agricultural activities and trade. Society was patriarchal. People used to make houses of timbers and stones. People were engaged in hunting and other activities. Music was very popular among the Persian people.
Since Persia came under Islamic rule, all the earlier records were destroyed by new rulers and Persia became Iran of today’s time.
Hebrews according to Bible came into existence after Israel was bifurcated and later on destroyed by Assyrians in circa 721. After the destruction of kingdom of Israel, the Hebrews only existed in the region. Kingdom of Hebrews was largely extended in the region and considered a powerful state. Later on they were involved in war with the kingdom of Israel which ended after seventy years. Hebrews then collaborated with the Assyrians and other contemporary rulers, made an alliance and attacked on the Israel. Finally circa 720 BC the existence of Israel was demolished by the invaders after a war.
Guisepi, Robert. “Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared.” history-world. 22 October 2011