Sarma, K M, and Lani Sinclair. Protecting the Ozone Layer: The United Nations History. Earthscan, 2002. Internet resource.
In this book, Sarma, a former secretary and acting consultant of UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) together with Anderson and an Environmental Protection Agency of the US published about the history of environmental issues as per researches done by UNEP. They talk about how the ozone layer agreement was successful and inspired the entire world community to handle the ozone layer problem and several other environmental degrading issues. The history covers the media coverage, diplomacy, science, business policies and technology stories that talked about ozone depletion and environmental degrading factors.
In my research synthesis paper, this book will enable me understand the history of ozone depletion, what governments and companies have done to address the issue, and what are the results of the steps taken to face this global issue. Chapter nine for instance which talks about “Environmental NGOs, the ozone layer and the Montreal Protocol” will provide useful information about how non-governmental organizations have addressed the problem of ozone depletion in all parts of the world including in Maldives.
Litfin, Karen T. Ozone Discourses: Science and Politics in Global Environmental Cooperation. New York [u.a.: Columbia Univ. Press, 1994. Print.
This 257 pages book by Karen Litfin talks about the transformation of scientific knowledge into Political change. The book gives a history of the premier global environmental treaty-Montreal Protocol and how it was subsequently revised to enhance its effectiveness. The treaty incorporates the information of activists, policymakers, and scientists to address the problem of ozone depletion. One of the major goals of the treaty was to reduce the emission of chlorofluorocarbons the main cause of ozone depletion. In the book, Litfin argues that the international relation is a wide discipline, and it should include the topic of environmental degradation so as to equip more people with the skills and experience to take care of the environment.
In the research on effects of Ozone depletion to Maldives, this book will provide me with information on the link between science, politics and the global environment. I will get to understand what the Montreal Protocol treaty is and how it was designed to address the problem off ozone depletion. I will also get to know the effect of CFCs on the environment and what effects in has on the environment such as Maldives.
Van, Der L. J. C. "The Ozone Layer." Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine. 20.4 (2004)
This book by Jan C. Van Der Leun gives a deep explanation of what the ozone layer is. It makes the layer appear not only important but also fascinating. The book explains the some important concepts to my research which include: the ozone layer, the climatic change, the UV-B rays, the vulnerability of the ozone layer to different factors, and the effects of ozone depletion to the earth. This book is very important to my research as it directly talks about the effect of ozone depletion to different regions of the earth. With this information, I will be able to connect and determine the effect of ozone depletion to Maldives.
Roan, Sharon. Ozone Crisis: The 15-Year Evolution of a Sudden Global Emergency. New York: Wiley, 1989. Print
In this book Sharon Roan talks about the ozone depletion crisis. She talks about the realization of the layer-ozone and that it tears off. She then talks about how different policies have been implemented to counter this problem for example the ban of CFCs. She also provides her future prediction of how the condition of the ozone layer will be. Chapter eight for example talks about the ozone hole. This chapter primarily talks about the effect of ozone depletion to the earth’s surface. This knowledge will be very helpful in my research topic which is the result of ozone depletion to Maldives.
Understanding ozone and the process of ozone depletion is the first thing all these authors makes sure the readers understand before they discuss anything else concerning the topic. All these authors clearly define the ozone as a layer in the earth’s atmosphere which absorbs dangerous ultraviolet rays from the sun therefore preventing them from reaching the earth’s surface. Tearing of the ozone layer, therefore, allows UV rays into the earth’s surface. Apart from directly being harmful to human beings, the UV rays also cause global warming which has very many negative effects on the earth’s surface. Melting of the polar glacier is the major focus of this research. Melting of glacier causes a rise in the sea level therefore most land mass is swallowed by the sea. This is the threat facing Maldives-being swallowed up by the sea.
All these writers also try to explain the causes of ozone depletion. The release of CFCs in the environment seem to be the common major cause among them all. Use of aerosols is also a significant factor that causes ozone depletion. In the book The Ozone Layer by Jan C. Van der Leun, he states that the ozone layer is a very delicate layer in the earth’s atmosphere. It has a lot of significances to the planet. However, it is the pollution that results from human activities that cause the depletion of this vital layer. Human beings are dying at the cost of their own pollution.
The effects of ozone depletion is a major topic addressed by all these writers. The major and most obvious effect is that it allows the harmful UV radiations from the sun to penetrate into the earth. Jan C. Van der Leun notes that these rays have various adverse effects to living organisms. In humans, they affect their skin and their eyes.
The ozone hole is another concept deeply discussed by these writers. Karen T, Litfin in “Science and Politics in Global Environmental Cooperation”, Sharon Roan in “The 15-Year Evolution of a Sudden Global Emergency”, and Jan C. Van Der Leun in “The Ozone Layer” explain that the depleted ozone layer in the arctic region, known as the ozone hole caused a rise in temperature of the pole regions hence melting the glaciers. This cause land to be submerged in the sea due to increase in the level of sea water. Maldives is a good example of islands whose land has been swallowed up by the sea due to increase sea levels. Maldives also suffers from ozone depletion and global warming since the rising temperatures of the Indian Ocean waters causes an increase in acidity therefore killing the coral reefs that make up the island.
These authors also talk about the Montreal treaty that was signed to curb this problem of ozone depletion. Once the human race realized that the ozone depletion was compromising the safety of earth, activists, policymakers and scientists came together to address this threat. The Montreal treaty was implemented and has undergone several amendments to make it even more efficient than it was when it was made. Lands such as Maldives will be saved from being swallowed up by the sea by such laws that prevent ozone depletion.
All these writers have similar ideas. First they tend to define the concept under study, they then discuss what makes it and its results. Finally, they discuss how human beings are putting in measures to curb the problem of ozone depletion and global warming which results from it.
I agree with the arguments put forth by the writers of the feature articles. All of them argue that the depletion of the ozone layer is caused by human activities. The major one being the release of chlorofluorocarbon gases into the atmosphere. The increases industrialization and transportation by gasses causes release of toxic gases into the atmosphere which tear the ozone layer. Apart from CFCs, use of aerosols which include sprayed pesticides and sprays cause depletion of the ozone layer. In the book “The Ozone Layer” by Jan C. van der Leun, he argues that the ozone layer is vulnerable, and the increased pollution from human activities makes the depletion rate very high.
The depletion of the ozone layer from the earth’s atmosphere allows entry of harmful rays into the earth and also results to global warming. When there is a hole in the ozone layer, more solar energy gets into the earth’s atmosphere hence an increase in the temperatures. In the book “Ozone Crisis”, Sharon Roan discusses the impact of ozone holes (atmospheres with torn ozone layers) on the affected regions. Most of these areas are industrialized regions with a lot of human activities. Roan gives examples of some of the big cities with have ozone holes
Ozone depletion causes global warming. When more industrial gases accumulate in the earth’s atmosphere, the ozone layer is torn and hence more solar radiation gets into the earth’s atmosphere. The industrial gases prevent this excess energy from escaping out of the atmosphere to the space. Accumulation of this energy causes a rise in temperature of the earths’ atmosphere. An increase of temperatures in the polar and snowcapped regions causes glaciation hence a rise in sea level. When the sea level rises, it means that some of the land areas will be swallowed by the sea. Maldives Island is one of the regions that are under threat by an increase in sea level. An increase in temperature of the sea also accelerated dying of the corals which make up the island.
My argument is that continued ozone depletion will cause the glaciation which will in turn cause submergence of land (Maldives) into the sea. Arguments by the writers are very much in line with what I argue for and therefore they will help me develop and support my argument. Intervention.
My thesis statement is, “a continued depletion of the ozone layer will lead to total submergence of the Maldives into the sea”. I will approach this topic in more or less the same way authors of the book have addressed it. First, clearly defining the problem by giving a detailed explanation of the core concepts. In this case, I will clearly explain what the ozone layer is and its importance to the earth. Then, I will explain the factors that cause depletion of the layer and explain this depletion process. I will then state and explain the consequences of ozone depletion which include the glaciation due to increase in temperatures. Most of these authors state that release of CFCs into the atmosphere is the main reason for ozone depletion. In my research, I will clearly define what CFCs are, the source of CFCs, and what effects CFCs have to the ozone. I will also give examples of places that release huge amounts of CFCs hence result to ozone holes. Most of my research will be in line with what the featured writers have argued in their books but I will be categorical and relate the effect of ozone depletion to Maldives.
One aspect that I will then explain that has not been covered by the authors is how ozone depletion causes an increased water level will cause the submergence of land (Maldives) and an increase in the temperatures of sea waters which destroys corals which make up Maldives. An increase in the temperature of sea water kills corals which greatly contribute to the making of Maldives. So as to be clear, I will give an explanation of what corals are, their characteristics, what favor their survival, and what kills them including an increase in sea temperatures. I will then complete my research by affirming to my thesis statement that a continued depletion of the ozone layer will lead to more submergence of land into the sea and some land such as Maldives will be completely swallowed by the sea.
In the conversation about ozone layer, I will have clearly shown the relationship between the depletion of ozone layer which is caused by human activities and submergence of land into the sea. Some people may not understand that when they see the size of an island growing smaller and smaller with time. My report will be able to explain to such people of what causes such occurrence. One important aspect that makes my report special is the fact that I will not only talk about how Maldives in submerging in water due to an increase in the level of sea water, but also the fact that one of its components (the coral reefs) is damaged by an increase in sea water temperatures. This corrodes it hence leading to its submergence in water. My research will be different with the authors’ since I will show a clear connection of release of toxic gases into the atmosphere, ozone depletion, increase of atmospheric temperatures, and submergence of land into the sea.
The report that will come out of my research may also be addressed to policy makers who are responsible for passing laws on the disposal of toxic fumes into the environment. After reading the research, they will understand that releasing of fumes into the environment may go as far as costing us huge pieces of land. Therefore, apart from my report being an informative one, it may also influence the decision and laws made by policy makers on environmental conservation.