Every year human beings consume about 95 million spondylic animals. Some scientists specially bred laboratory animals, however, some are track down in the wilderness or acquired at auctions and in shelters. The foremost intimation of animal examination was disclosed in the tractate of the ancient Greeks in the IV and III century BC. Aristotle and Erazistrat were among the first persons, realized trial on live animals. At the 2nd century AD, the ancient Roman physician Galen, was famous as the “founder of vivisection”, practiced preparing of pigs and goats. The Arab therapeutic Ibn Zuhr in the XII century practiced methods of surgery on living creatures.
People took advantage of animals during the history of science, thus infringing on their rights. The period of middle and late middle Ages, including the Renaissance, is famous by the work of the great doctors, as Andreas Vesalius, having access to the autopsy of human corpses, finding that the errors of Galen come from the fact that he dissected monkeys and other animals and transferred these data to the study of people. During the Renaissance, animal studies lasted, as all natural medicine was based on ancient, Byzantine sources, the strict adherence to the canons of Hippocrates, Galen, Aristotle and other writers of the ancient was recommended. The second stage in the history of experimental medicine is considered the 19th century, which was marked by a sharp performances community discussing vivisection. In1880, the year Louis Pasteur evidenced the microbial nature of some diseases, artificially causing Siberian plague in sheep. In the 1890s, Ivan Pavlov exploited dogs to explore conditioned reflexes.
The third stage of development of the biomedical experiment was 20th century, when there was a question about the ineffectiveness of this practice from the standpoint of science. However, the amount of testing was not reduced. The researches firstly exposed Insulin from dogs in 1922. This year is famous as the year of groundbreaking cure of diabetes. Anaesthetic substances were discovered only in the 19th century and painful experiments on animals, such as the dissection of live animals without anesthesia and manipulation of their bodies, were the norm in biomedical research for more than two centuries!
Unfortunately, today the animal experiments continue to be conducted on a massive scale. Experiments on animals are conducted in four areas: testing of drugs - 65%, basic research (including military, medical, space, etc.) - 26%, cosmetics – 8 %, the educational process is -1 %. Of all these areas the use of animals in experiments, testing cosmetics on animals – this is an area where humanity even cannot justify the need for research in order to preserve the life and health of people, as the animals are sacrificed solely for the sake of human whim. During the cosmetics tests, cleaning products and new compounds being developed by industry, animals breathe vapors of the substance whose concentration is so great that most animals die from poisoning. In the United States and the European Union, the efficacy and safety of the medication or cosmetics must be tested on animals, and then begins the test of human beings, although the EU Directive of 2010 calls for the use of alternative methods if possible. Since the beginning of 21st century, people thought, and moved to the treatment that is more humane. Currently about 29 million animals a year are subjected to experiments in the USA and the EU countries (80% of these rats and mice). That is less than half what it was in the mid-1970’s. The decline is noticeable, however, in the last 10 years has slowed down.
“Animal Testing in the United States.” Animal Testing in the United States. Web. 20 July 2015. <http://www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/animal-testing-united-states.html>.
Scutti, Susan. “Animal Testing: A Long, Unpretty History.” Medical Daily. 27 June 2013. Web. 20 July 2015. <http://www.medicaldaily.com/animal-testing-long-unpretty-history-247217>.
“U.S. Government Animal Testing Programs.” PETA. Web. 20 July 2015. <http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/us-government-animal-testing-programs/>.