Jewellery has been in existence since the early humans began to become civilized. The human desire is to be adorned with precious metals and gems. This has been evident since the Neolithic and Palaeolithic eras. The early humans made jewellery that was formed from claws, bones, teeth and shells. This has been documented by archaeologists. The Egyptians, the Romans and the Greeks applied distinct methods for the creation of jewellery (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999). Today a new production method has emerged. This method is the application of three dimensional printing in order to create jewellery. The application of three dimensional printing has the capacity of transforming the art of jewellery making (Bakhash 2014; O’Connor 2014). The question that will be viewed in this dissertation is the following: Will three dimensional jewellery manufacturing be the future of jewellery? The details that surround three dimensional printing will be reviewed and compared to the traditional craft of jewellery manufacturing throughout the years in Europe.
A number of jewellery products that are marketed in the United States and Europe are manufactured overseas. This is attributed to the premise that producing jewellery in Europe and America has become very expensive (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999). Consequently, custom jewellery appears to be an additional example in a substantial schedule of items. The items that are presently being fabricated by overseas manufacturers in order to optimize lower manufacturing expenses are consumer electronics, apparel, microchips and automobiles. The outcome of the more substantial profits for the organizations and commercial establishments are capitalized upon by the consumers. The manufacture of these items overseas must be calculated as a function of the attrition of millions of stable well compensated employment positions (Bakhash 2014).
Today 3D technology is causing a radical disruption in the jewellery industry and assisting the United States and Europe to regain a more competitive position. In the past several years, the use of 3D technology has acquired greater acceptance in the jewellery production field. . In order to perceive the manner by which 3D printing has caused a radical disruption in the jewellery industry and returning the manufacturing employment positions to its domestic origins. The concepts of the efficiency of labour and the ability of maintaining a virtual inventory will be further explored (Bakhash 2014).
In the customization of a luxury piece of precious metals jewellery, subsequent to the piece being designed in accordance with the buyers’ specifications, the manufacturing process typically involves an extremely laborious procedure. The master jewellery craftsmen construct each piece by investing many hours in laborious hand carving and performing the meticulous welding in conjunction with inventoried components. In a number of circumstances, the original parts were primarily painstakingly crafted by hand (Bakhash 2014).
Today the jewellery manufacturers have the potential of applying computer aided software design (CAD) in order to develop a three dimensional digital archive of a custom luxury jewellery piece. Consequently, a 3D printer is applied in order to formulate a thermoplastic wax model. The metal is subsequently poured into the thermoplastic wax model and the jewels are subsequently aggregated. Endeavours that previously required weeks are now completed in a matter of hours (Bakhash 2014).
The fast prototyping process that can be applied to a number of distinct disciplines present the customized jewellery pieces with a diminished turnaround time. This characteristic enables the manufacturers to present the completed fashioned product delivery of custom luxury jewellery in a process that the overseas concerns that operate in Asia cannot match. This innovation is attributed to the radically disruptive presence of the 3D printing technological models. This technology completely negates the option of fabricating jewellery in Asia or other locations in order to optimize on the lower labour costs.
In the application of 3D printing, the expenses incurred for all types of manufacturing are substantially influenced by the commerce of commodities in the world markets. This characteristic aggregates volatility and financial hazard with regards to the maintenance of a physical inventory. In the jewellery concerns, the transitions in the precious gem and metals markets are important (Bakhash 2014).
The enacting of a virtual inventory matrix for the custom manufacturing of jewellery infers that retailers will not have to consider the procurement of merchandise in bulk amounts from overseas sources in order to warehouse the merchandise. It becomes feasible to create and manifest catalogues that have the potential creations. Consequently, it becomes viable to place variations on display. The virtual jewellery is displayed to the consumer on a screen in order to enable the clients’ selection for a custom luxury piece. The 3D imaging facilitates the clients’ ability to view options prior to committing to make a purchase. Consequently, the jewellery manufacturing can occur in Europe or the United States.
In the consideration of this workflow, the retailers do not have the requisite of procuring and maintaining inventory with various copies of the identical item. This is described as a buffer inventory. The retailers acquire a greater competitive advantage and have the capability of offering a greater range of variety (Bakhash 2014).
Three dimensional printing is not only radically disrupting the jewellery industry. There are diverse numbers of industrial and consumer products that have the capacity of adopting 3D technology. This will allow the manufacturing employment positions to return to the United States and Europe. . In the event that the production expenses that are associated with each unit in Europe and the United States are more elevated, these expenses may be offset by the elimination of shipping valuable cargo overseas. Finally, in the application of 3D printing in the jewellery industry, the consumers will be able to anticipate an unlimited amount of selection and possibilities for jewellery customization. This is attributed to the advantages of 3D printing (Bakhash 2014).
3D Jewellery Designer
The fashion and accessories industries have required more time to become introduced to 3D printing. Three dimensional imaging is modifying manufacturing and medicine. Presently in addition to the 3D printed revolver and the three dimensional internal organs, the time has come for the inception of the 3D printed diamond necklace, pearl pendant or engagement ring. The Chief Executive Officer of American Pearl, Eddie Bakhash has the intention of agitating the $275 billion industry by the application of a proprietary three dimensional computer assisted design (CAD) (O’Connor 2014).
The consumers have the capacity of completely customizing their proprietary design and are able to receive the finished product in three to four days. Bakhash claims that his organization has had substantial problems in matching the prices of the overseas concerns that have been capitalizing on the inexpensive overseas labour production costs. Bakhash‘s father started the American pearl organization over sixty years ago (O’Connor 2014).
The procedure initiates on American Pearl .com. The procedure can also be initiated at American Diamond Shop.com. These enterprises offer the client the capacity of designing a completely unique piece of custom luxury jewellery. It does not matter if the design is a necklace that is worth hundred s of thousands of dollars or a $500 customized pair of earrings. The potential consumer initiated by searching for the ideal engagement ring. The consumer would start by receiving eight precious metal selections. Subsequently, the consumer would choose the stones that they would like and the final touch may be a diamond of the choosing (O’Connor 2014).
There are substantial varieties of diamonds. The diamonds may have variations in clarity, weight and colour. The application of 3D printing in the jewellery manufacturing process provides American Pearl and American Diamond Shop.com with a virtual inventory of thousands of design choices, millions of potential combinations and billions of variations on the design. Three dimensional printing has enabled the owner of American Pearl and American Diamond Shop.com, Eddie Bakhash to have the capacity of presenting a larger jewellery selection than the jewellery selection that is pre4sently available at Tiffany’s. Subsequent to the process of customization, the benefits of 3D printing enable the magic to take place.
The CAM/ CAD platform at American Pearl produces a digital archive that possesses perfect proportions. The human potential for error is extracted from the jewellery manufacturing equation. A three dimensional model of the custom jewellery piece is produced by the company. This model is constructed from thermoplastic wax. The client’s selected precious metal is poured into the thermoplastic digitally designed model. As the metal solidifies, the gemstones that have been selected by the consumer are aggregated. The stones are set into place by a professional jeweller in accordance with the client’s precise online specifications (Bakhash 2014).
The three dimensional printing is a method that transforms a virtual three dimensional example into a physical object. The past several years have been witness to the development of novel manufacturing technologies that formulate parts on a layer by layer model. In the application of these technologies, the manufacturing intervals for the components of any category of complexity are diminished substantially. The technology that is applied in three dimensional printing was initially conceived by Charles Hull in 1984. The technique was named Stereo Lithography. Stereo lithography was popularized in the late 1980s. Other technologies that are similar in nature are FDM (fused deposition modelling) and SLS (selective laser sintering. These techniques were presented in 1993 (Bakhash 2014).
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology produced another technique that was designated as three dimensional printing techniques. This technology possesses a similarity with the two dimensional inkjet technologies. The majority of the commercially accessible rapid prototyping components applied one of six strategies. The system was patented in 1986. Stereo lithography initiated the rapid prototyping movement. The approach constructs three dimensional paradigms that are derived from polymers that have a liquid and photosensitive characteristic. that turns into a solid when placed under ultraviolet lighting. The paradigm is constructed upon a platform that is placed below the surface of a container of acryl ate resin or liquid epoxy. A low intensity focused beam of ultraviolet light is applied in order to trace the initial layer. This light causes a solidification of the cross section of the model while enabling the other layers to remain liquid. Subsequently, an elevator descends the platform into the container of liquid polymer. The solidified layer is recoated with the layer that has been solidified while it is in a liquid state (Bakhash 2014).
The laser conducts a tracing of the second layer and places it on the first solid layer. This process is conducted repetitively until the prototype model is completed. Finally, the solid portion is extracted from the vat and the excess, liquid is rinsed clean. The supports are removed and the model is subsequently positioned in an oven that applies ultraviolet lighting in order to enable the model to cure. As this process was the initial technique, stereo lithography is perceived as the benchmark that is applied in order to evaluate all of the other technologies. The initial stereo lithography prototypes were fragile and subject to distortions. The recent technological advances have been able to compensate for these challenges. The fundamental process of three dimensional printing is applied in order to transform the CAD model to an STL matrix. The STL matrix is subsequently sliced into narrow cross sections that are layered. The model is built by placing one layer on the previous layer (Bakhash 2014).
Finally the stereo lithographic model is cleaned and finished. Jewellery manufacturers were among the initial craftsmen to apply three dimensional modelling in their fabrication processes. Notwithstanding, the jewellers do not apply metal printers, the printers that are applied use was. In a procedure that is designated as investment casting, a custom piece of jewellery is printed or sculpted from wax. Afterward plaster is added and poured on each of the sides. The liquid metal is poured in the stereo lithographic wax model. The residue is a metallic version of the wax model that can be applied. The final product is trimmed and polished by a professional jeweller. There are a number of jewellery establishments and designers that have been able to apply the use of high tech printers in their concern. An innovative company called American Pearl applies the process in order to design custom luxury jewellery (Bakhash 2014).
In taking out the majority of the labour and the potential for error in the luxury custom jewellery design, the jewellers at American Pearl have the capacity of having the jewellery ready for the client in the time span of three to four days. In addition, the jewellery can be manufactured at a more competitive price that the competitors. . Eddie Bakhash, the CEO of American Pearl claims that he recently marketed a diamond riviera necklace that was created by a three dimensional design. The custom piece was marketed for over $105,000. A similar custom jewellery piece would retail at Cartier for $250,000. In addition, the jeweller’s fee would be $10,000 due to the attribute of custom luxury design. The piece that took American Pearl three days to complete would take the jewellers at Cartier’s more than two weeks to complete (O’Connor 2014).
Eddie Bakhash has the intention of encountering and optimizing all of the niches that are available in the jewellery industry by the application of three dimensional printing. This would be achieved initiating with charms. An additional ingenious and unusual design method would be applied. A client was in love with the City of Paris. The client wanted the charm as a souvenir of her honeymoon. In the application of Google Earth, the design team was able to formulate an ideal three dimensional model of the Eiffel toward. A pearl was set at the base of the Eiffel Tower's jewellery design. This is the capacity of virtual inventory. Three dimensional jewellery printing has enabled Eddie Backhash to overcome his fears of lower prices from overseas competitors. . All of the jewellery is manufactured in New York City. The clients are being empowered with lower prices and the manufacturing employment positions are returning (O’Connor 2014).
Composites Applied in Jewellery Manufacturing
Metals that are applied in jewellery can be reinforced by the application of participles or fibres that are composed of ceramics. There are additional non metallic compounds or additional metals. These include refractory metals that are conventionally non soluble in the hosting metal. There have been a number of new materials that are copper based or iron based that demonstrate a promising spectrum for diverse applications. Considering the materials that are based on precious metals, there has been relatively little work that has been documented. The matrix of silver (Ag 20, 119, 120) and the platinum composite materials have been produced and are applied with regards to functional applications in jewellery manufacture. Platinum and silver are provided reinforcement with oxides particles (Blaber, Ford and Cortic 2009).
The reinforcement of platinum and silver with oxide particles can be achieved internally or by means of the powder metallurgical venues. This can be performed in order to enhance the properties of temperatures. This can be conducted with regards to the arching resistance of electrodes or contact materials. In comparison, the gold based contact materials that can be alloyed with silver, platinum, nickel and copper are applied. The potential of adding participles by the applications of electrodes is applicable (Blaber et al. 2009).
In comparing the traditional metal and matrix composites, the gold based metal to metal composites have been produced. In this process, the reinforcing phase and the metal have the characteristic of ductile metals that are theoretically soluble. .These composites are formulated by the application of powder metallurgy strategies that are derived from the genuine metal powders and receive a procedure of extensive deformation. The reductions that are applied in the area of the metals are superior to 99.999%. This is the circumstance of producing fine gold wire. The deformation causes the reshaping of the equivalent axed powdered substance into fine filaments that have the dimensions of being several tenths of a nanometre in their density and millimetres of dimensions in the length (Blaber et al. 2009).
This category of material is referenced as composites that have been subjected to deformation processing by means of metal to metal composites (DMMCs). The gold based composites that have a volume of reinforcing phases of 7% volume silver and 7% volume platinum create interesting composites that have elevated strength and the elevated characteristics of conductivity. These applications have been recommended for implementation in electronics that have the requisite of elevated thermal service. The reinforcing that takes place in these composites is derived from the secondary phase filaments that respond as efficient barriers to dislocation movement (Blaber et al. 2009). The elevated characteristic of conductivity can be detailed by the electrons that are able to flow in a parallel direction to the filament microscopic structure that is in alignment with the wired axis. The composites have been discovered to possess excellent thermal stability in comparison with metals that are formed through the conventional cold working process gold interconnection wires. Notwithstanding, these precious metal composites will continue to remain as conventional cold solutions in the event that they receive exposure to elevated temperatures for prolonged periods of time (Blaber et al. 2009).
Traditional Jewellery Manufacturing Techniques
In Europe during the dark ages between the ninth and tenth centuries in the Christian era, the Lombards, Anglo Saxons, Franks, Ostrogoths and Visigoths used the extremely skilled armour makers as jewellers. . The techniques that had been applied by the previous civilizations were accessible to these precious metal and precious s gem craftsmen. The craftsmen of Europe during that period were able to exceed the capacities of the Egyptians with regards to the creation of stained glass jewellery. The jewellery that was designed was usually buried with the owners; consequently, there is limited knowledge on these forms. The Celtic torque necklaces continued (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
The Middle ages and the Byzantine era are problematic for the study of jewellery manufacturing. IN these eras, the tradition of entombing the jewellery with the owners ended. It is known that a substantial amount of the jewellery that was produced in the Middle Ages and the byzantine era were applied for religious purposes. The process of cloisonné, filigree and opus interrasile were conventional approaches that were applied toward the enhancement of the diverse jewellery designs that were available with the amount of gold that was available. The designs of the time were medallions that were combined with beads, openwork necklaces and intricate pendants. Enamel and niello supplanted the coloured stone inlays that were used for designing accents and colour. The declining economic conditions and the fashions caused jewellery to fall out of favour in the eleventh and twelfth century English and French monarchies. The tunics that possessed elevated collars did not provide accommodations for jewellery that was decorative in its nature. Consequently, during this period in Europe the jewellery forms that were prevalent were composed of belts, buckles, broaches and functional jewellery. The jewellery that was worn by monarchs of this era included suspended symbolic medallions, rosaries and cruciform pendant (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
In addition, the collars of the garments demonstrated elaborate decorative emblematic collars. In the thirteenth century, the wearing of gold and gems by common people was outlawed. In England during the Gothic era of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was a period where England followed the precedent that was set by France in forbidding common people to wear jewellery that was adorned with gold and gems. There are relatively few jewellery pieces from this era that have survived. There are indications that the wearing of elaborate jewellery was a symbol of social rank. At the time of the fifteenth century, the couture demonstrated extreme décolletage with regards to the ladies’ attire. This caused necklaces to become predominant during that century. The jewellery forms that were abundant in the fifteenth century in Europe included heavily decorated collars, strands of interconnected pearls and pendants. The religious jewellery that was considered to be more transcendental in its nature was composed of elaborate rosaries, cruciform pendants and pendants that possessed locked compartments (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
In the Renaissance, there were extraordinary advances that took place in art and architecture. These artistic and architectural elements demonstrated influence over the art of the goldsmith. The pendants and the medallions that were produced during this era demonstrated a new level of sculptural craftsmanship that demonstrated carved gemstones. Baroque pearls and enamel. All of these elements were applied toward the jewellery that had a religious motif. The jewellers initiated travelling and publishing literature on creating jewellery. The access to information causes it to become difficult to identify a particular goldsmith’s creation. This was the beginning of prototypical designs in the jewellery trade. The shapes were repeated and these are themes and motifs that are apparent throughout Europe. Intricate chains with and without adorning pendants were worn. Chokers that were composed of pearls and beads were also worn. The more ornate and bulky chains were preferred by males and females during this era (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
There were massive chains that were composed of individual links that were weighed separately. These chains were applied for the transport of wealth. Later in the Renaissance, the motif for the jewellery migrated from religious icons to mythological beings. The ladies began wearing more jewellery than the men. Pearls were always accessible in Europe; however, in the sixteenth century as a result of the increased trade that was caused by the exploration of new lands, the pearls became more abundant in Europe than they had been previously. The outcome of the new influx of wealth from the new lands was a desire for pearl necklaces that had extensive length. These pearl necklaces were usually wound several times around the ladies’ necks. In addition, these pearl necklaces were draped and attached to the clothing (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
The seventeenth century was the era of the production of the technology that facilitated the faceting of gems. The necklaces were created that possessed a collection of cluster pendants. In addition, necklaces were created that demonstrated precious stones that were threaded in conjunction and held in place with a ribbon. This was the creation of the necklace style that was designated the rivière. There were necklaces that were more elaborate that demonstrated a collection of cluster pendants that were fastened with a cord and wound around the neck. This era was a time of memento jewellery. Motifs that featured skulls, skeletons and coffins were available during the latter part of the Renaissance (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
In the middle of the seventeenth century, the modifications in the fashion trends caused new jewellery fashions to emerge. The dark fabrics that were worn were appropriate for elaborate jewellery. In addition the pastel shades evolved into becoming excellent and graceful settings for pearls and gemstones. The amplification of global commerce caused the gemstones to become more abundant. The technological advances that had been achieved with regards to the gemstone cutting approaches caused the gemstones to become more brilliant in the candlelight. The jewels that were the most impressive were the breast ornaments and large bodice jewellery. These types of jewellery were required to be tailored into the garments. The botanical ornaments and the bow motifs demonstrated new enthusiasm for the adornment with gems and pearls (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
In the eighteenth century, diamonds were the primary gemstones of the era. The obsession with diamonds was derived from the newly produced capacity of being able to facet them. This new capacity of faceting diamonds resulted in a greater refraction and reflection of light. The diamonds became more lustrous than they ever had been. The wearing of diamonds during the daytime hours was permitted. The more elaborate jewellery was reserved for events where there were evening social affairs that were lit with candlelight. The diamonds of that era were set in silver until the middle of the eighteenth century when the closed back settings became stylish. . The use of flowers and bows were prevalent. The application of parures was popular with the necklace serving as a centrepiece. The use of cameos became frequent in jewellery manufacture. The cameos were demonstrated at all of the social levels of society. The cameos were available in rings, bracelets, broaches, necklaces and tiaras. In the second half of the eighteenth century, the wearing of coloured gemstones became fashionable. The rivières connected extensive lines of stones that were individually set. Diamonds were often included in the rivières. The popularity of the rivière continues to the present. The rivière is a timeless classic (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
In the nineteenth century, an interesting development was the production of jewellery that was derived from Berlin ironwork. These pieces were rapidly absorbed into the neo- classical fashion that gained popularity in Europe. The repoussé medallions were featured in necklaces that showed classical scenes. These repoussé medallions were attached to the clothing or suspended by fine chains. Berlin was captured by Napoleon and the models that were used for making these types of jewellery were confiscated. This caused the origin of the ironwork to become questionable. The iron jewellery was used by the Germans in order to trick Napoleon’s forces by trading the iron jewellery in order to finance their struggle for independence. The society was enamoured with the intricate iron work and the materials continued to be used in order to provide a revival of the gothic motifs. Napoleon’s defeat derived an era of austerity in France that had the outcome of the style for a period being the wearing of no jewellery. When the jewellery trade was re- established in France, the diamonds were not favoured. The less valuable jewellery became the choice of preference. The style of the early nineteenth century with regards to jewellery in France was the application of Cannetelle panures that were adorned with coloured stones in order to portray realistic floral motifs. The necklaces of that era revealed pietra dura plaques and micro- mosaics that were attached by chains, with entire collections of cameos. In addition the ornate use of beads that were attached with wirework chains and elaborately enamelled pendants were stylish during the early eighteenth century in Europe (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
In the middle of the nineteenth century, there had been new technologies that were applied for the crafting of popular mass produced jewellery. The techniques of electroplating, stamping, faux gemstones caused jewellery to be manufactured at a pace that was more rapid than any other era in history. The discoveries of silver resources caused silver to gain popularity. Consequently, millions of pieces of silver jewellery were rapidly produced as an outcome of the mass jewellery production technologies that were applied In England. A response to the mass produced low valued stamped jewellery in the second part of the nineteenth century had the outcome of a novel aesthetic and philosophical perspective that sought the revival of the jewellery craft. This style was designated Art Nouveau. . The liberal whiplash designs that were inherent in Art Nouveau were implemented in order to construct magnificent enamels and pendants that were adorned by diverse colourful enamel. Art Nouveau in jewellery manufacture applied the plique – a -jour and other categories of valuable gemstones. The natural themes that included flowers, birds and insects, in addition to well made mythological creatures and feminine figures, were the designs that were applied during the Art Nouveau period (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
In the beginning of the twentieth century, there was a new intricate styling that was made possible by the application of platinum with diamonds. The new aesthetic that evolved in conjunction with Art Nouveau was acknowledged as Edwardian. . In France, the style was designated Belle Époque. There were pendants that were created with magnificent detail that were suspended from very fine chains. The colliers and the chokers were used in combination with long chains and sautoirs. The designs of this era were incredible and garland design necklaces were applied that were completely laced with diamonds. These jewellery items were able to demonstrate brilliance under the new electric lighting. . As World War I raged on, the Art Nouveau style of jewellery lost favour and at the conclusion of World War I, the Edwardian style of jewellery fell out of favour as well. In the beginning of the 1920s, there was a demand for a more elaborate style of jewellery. This demand, in addition to the popular Cubist trend in artwork caused a new and different type of geometric jewellery to be made. This new style was named Art deco. The style involved the use of platinum necklaces that were adorned by emerald cut and round cut diamonds. Coloured gems were applied to these necklaces in order to provide contrast. The gemstones were frequently calibre- cut in order to provide delicate silhouettes (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
The extensive strands of pearls and the long sautoirs, in addition to the negligees provided adornment for the ladies’ neck areas. In addition, the Art Deco style of jewellery delegated an elongated decor on the newly fashioned straight waist silhouette clothing. The retro era witnessed gold’s return. The use of extremely polished links that were in gold that had green yellow and pink hues provided impressive collars that were wound around the ladies’ necks was prevalent. After World War II, platinum returned as being fashionable. There was a restyling of the rivière necklace in order to accommodate the new diamond forms that include the pear shape and the marquise form. The chokers that were worn during this period were often encircled with settings of diamonds and pearl pendants. The use of pearl necklaces returned during the post World War II era. Most frequently, the styles composed dual strands of pearls that were graduated in size. . Necklaces that were composed from beads and gemstones were considered to be appropriate for daytime settings (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
The cimaruta is acknowledged as an Italian neck charm. It is traditionally used in order to repel evil. The Cimaruta was frequently composed of silver. In the pendant there were a number of charms. The charms were supposed to compose a tree that was applied in order to ward off evil. The Countess de Vendôme is a necklace that is composed of one hundred and sixteen diamonds that possess a central one hundred and twenty five carat diamond. This diamond necklace has a value of over thirty one million dollars. The Portuguese collar de Estella is a diamond necklace that was crafted for Queen Maria Pia de Savoy. This is part of the collection of the Portuguese crown jewels. The paragon diamond is one of the largest diamonds in the world. Its weight is one hundred and thirty seven carats. The diamond is owned by Virgilio Elcllada Lub and was designated the name of the rainbow star. This diamond is a type II Super D asscher cut that is flawless. It is presently being displayed at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC.
Types of Jewellery
The pearl choker is a necklace that is normally an average of fifteen inches in length. This is a versatile and classic piece that is applied in all settings from elegant to causal. The choker is an excellent complement for any type of neckline. The pearl collars are normally twelve inches in length. . They are usually composed of three strands and they have the tendency of resting snugly around the neckline. . The pearl collars can serve as complements to off the shoulder attire, V- neck or boat necks (Cartlidge 1985; Dorner & Turner 1985; Druff and Dormer 1995; Druitt 1986; Falk 1989; Game and Goring 1998; Gilhooley and Costin 1998; Grant 2005; Grant 2007; Hinks 1983; Hughes 1972; Kulgowski 2007; Lambert 1998; Lewin 1994; Murphy 2007; Murphy 2009; Phillips 1996; Phillips 2008; Stofer 2006; Stofer 2009; Turner 1975; Turner 1976; Turner 1996; Walgrave 2000; Watkins 1999).
Three dimensional printing is the most novel innovation in the art of jewellery crafting. This innovation has the potential of providing the same effect that took place in England when they became able to mass produce jewellery for the masses during the nineteenth century. The three dimensional printing enables the conversion of a digital three dimensional model into a real object. This is detailed as rapid prototyping technology. This rapid prototyping technology has the potential of transforming a number of industries. The past several years have been witness to a number of innovations that have the capability of applying the layer by layer prototype creation models that are used in three dimensional printing. In the previous eras, a substantial amount of time was required in order to choose the model that would be used in order to make the jewellery. Presently, it is possible to have several models and demonstrate the finished products in catalogues. The clients would simply select the model that they would like from the catalogue and apply the stones that are desired. The normal time for the creation of a high end luxury jewellery creation is two weeks. The use of three dimensional printing reduces the amount of time to three days. The owner of American Pearl, Eddie Bakhash, stated that his primary concern was that he would not be able to match the low labour costs that were provided offshore. In the application of the three dimensional printing technology, the costs and the amount of time that are required in order to fabricate a custom piece of jewellery are greatly diminished. This enables for a number of manufacturing functions that were lost as a result of high expenses in Europe and the Americas to return. The application of three dimensional printing can be used in a number of fields that vary from baking to medicine. Three dimensional printing will transform the manner of creating jewellery. The future of jewellery is three dimensional printing.
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