EthosThis is when the author influences the reader to listen to him by the prove that the article is original and from a reliable source. The use of Ethos: in the introduction of the text, the author links the contents of the arguments to the founding fathers of public choices such as; Kenn Arrow,Duncan Black, James Buchanan, Gordon Tullock, Anthony Downs, William Niskanen and others. The mention in itself that the aforementioned guys are the fathers of public choices creates the confidence to the audience that the content before them is original and from a relevant source. It gives the text the authenticity and the reason for the audience to listen to it. Out the respect for the founders, the audience could take the argument more seriously and tend to believe the insights in it.NarrationThis is the way the author develops his/her essay to make his or her point to the reader .He can use examples or between the text stories. The use of examples also does a lot in the development of the audience confidence in the text. The author has used the example of a market that sells cars and the people that need to buy a car. The bargains for a better price and the best quality compared to the bargain in politics where a politician sells his ideologies and what he intends to do if elected. The author sites that in a market both the buyer and the seller seek to be equally better off after the sale. However, in public choice the buyer of the ideologies seems not to be better off at the end of the transaction. This example as used ignites the feeling in the audience that there is reason to believe there is something wrong with the whole system of public choice.
This is the choice of the language that makes the reader to read the tone of the article. The author approached the issue of unfairness in the outcomes of an elect ion process in a way that the author real feels the negative impact. The example of the market bargain and satisfaction leaves the reader astonished on what to do as it seems so costly to vote that to avoid the exercise. The statement that the politician is left better off and the voter as he/she was, arouses a negative perception on the process of election. Thus, the choice between candidates is difficult as a voter fails to choose a candidate that will fully represent his/her interest. The utility function fails to normalize in the democratic system if the choice is to be made between two or three candidates. The voting rule sometimes fails to produce a clear winner since the candidate preferred by the majority may not come out as a winner due to the shortcomings brought about by failure in the process of collective choice making. Thus, Arrow suggests that it’s through dictatorship that will work as a tool public representation. Duncan Black also argues that in simple majority rule in voting may cause bias in choosing the preferred candidate. The median voter theorem tends to favor the candidate whose proposal is adjacent to the preference of the median voter.Rationality in voting indicates that more people may opt not to vote since the cost to vote is higher compared to the benefit. The larger the number of voters reduced the effect of one vote to decide. Thus, the majority will deny one voter his/her preference. Anthony Downs hence asserts that voting is irrational. The voters too lack the knowledge to make right choices. To tell the profile of a candidate is not easy since the act itself of getting information about the politicians is costly and time consuming.The legislative process may also tend to reflect interests of the politicians who vote on behalf of their constituents. They vote for projects and programs that may not be the real urgent or present problems of the ones that sent them. The politician's inner circles form the minority whose interests are served best. The government tends to look at the smaller groups like the farmers and manufactures who are given cost incentives but continue to charge consumers higher prices from their products. The other arms of governance that is the president, and the judiciary are served with the responsibility to ensure fairness in public allocations by the public appoints that are not politically instituted.In conclusion, the study focused on the different ways of exercising public choice. The process has since faced a number of challenges ranging from the cost of voting, the weaknesses of mechanisms of public choice, the free rider problems, uneven distribution of resources, the challenge of self-interest among interest groups, the outcome out of the trade of votes and the irrationality in the voting process. The author has successfully used rhetorical strategies to deliver a message to the audience. The use of Logos, for example, has been in a large extent the reason for understanding in the discussion. The audience is able to logically get the issues as they are and how they ought to be. The audience has also been made to have confidence in the article since the author gets the knowledge from re-known scholars such as Gary Anderson, Mark Crain, William Shughart, Robert Tollision and others.The use of rhetoric strategy is effective in maintaining one’s audience throughout the text. The strategies far much help to solve the problem of prejudice that the audience may develop towards the author or speaker. Thus, the effective use of the strategy has brought coherence and acceptance of the text. It is easier to communicate important points to the people that you know are not ready due the problems or challenges that they face.