1. Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory
MMPI is an intensively researched, taught, and often used personality assessment tool. Most authors agree that that it is a meta-analytical review to demonstrate substantial reliability and good convergent validity. A researcher can use the tool to conduct sound theoretical and empirical rational concepts. Researchers that have used both MMPI and Rorschach variables observe disparate views of personality that becomes a momentous conundrum for the field of assessment. Butcher (2014) state that when clinicians face conflicts in the use of Rorschach and MMPI they should make a decision that emphasize on certain aspects of test findings while suppressing results from other sources of test data. Historical precedent terms such as the objective are the contemporary MMPI and projective is the Rorschach. MMPI is factual and precise unlike Rorschach is not. MMPI is more a self-assessment tool that uses factual and precise measures of personality. The MMPI lays out the procedure of attending to a task. Most of the tasks that use the tool have easy to read and understand syntax. The MMPI gives a patient more than one response option that includes true, false, and no response. The self-assessment measure requires the patient to think on their own as well as make decisions on the attribute that would like to share information..Some of the merits of the self-report method include well-defined expectations, familiar stimuli, has a narrow range of response choices. The task calls for a patient to consider own traits and features and decide on the presentation as well as wring the decision on a piece of paper. The administration and the scoring technique require minimal skills. The method requires patients to assume to use a certain benchmark useful to decide on one’s trait. It is a better tool used to obtain the information concerning experiences and overt symptoms.
Another source of influence in the use of MMPI lies in greater responsibility to organize the test data. With a self-assessment measure, every student employs accuracy to understand all patients and items to have mostly true and mostly false. The self-report instrument has privacy since it does not attract the active engagement of the examiner. The patients that like having control on what they disclose prefer to communicate with the tool. The raw information obtained from MMPI depends on the quality of self-schema.
PRESENTING SITUATION AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION
The patient denied any history of head injury with possible loss of consciousness, seizures, brain infections, stroke, sleep apnea, diabetes, hypertension, thyroid disorder, diabetes, respiratory problems, cardiac abnormalities, risk for HIV, previous headache disorder, hospitalizations or surgeries, exposure to toxins, birth complications, developmental abnormalities, or use of medications or substances by the patient’s mother while pregnant with him He did report a history of a deviated septum and surgery for “sweaty palms,” as well as astigmatism. He did not disclose any psychiatric history, or substance abuse. He is not prescribed any medications.
The patient was born in California, raised by his biological family, and speaks English and some Armenian; he speaks English about 90 percent of the time, and indicated that he is not fluent in Armenian. He described himself as an “A” student throughout high school and college; school records show that his total GPA in high school was 3.9, and his college GPA was 3.65. He obtained a Bachelor’s Degree in Civil Engineering, with a minor in Math. He completed half the courses for a Master’s degree in Instructional Engineering (15 out of 33 required course credits), but discontinued the program due to the excessive workload and family responsibilities. The patient works as a Civil Engineer/Construction Manager for the city of Los Angeles, and reported that he enjoys his job.
The patient has never been married, nor has he ever had a long term relationship. He reported that it is “not very easy” for him to make friends, and “most of my friends are females”. His current goal is to find a girlfriend and get married, but he reported not having luck in this endeavor and that “girls are weird”.
The patient indicated that he has two younger brothers (ages 26 and 17). His youngest brother is a high school student, and his middle brother has a Master’s Degree in Architecture. The patient’s mother is age 50, completed high school, and is a homemaker. The patient’s father is age 52, completed high school, and is a company owner. The patient described his parents as happily married. The patient did not report any family history of significant psychological or medical disorders.
The patient resides with his family. He reported having a “very healthy” relationship with his family members. In terms of a typical day, the patient reported that he arises at 5am, takes a quick shower, and goes to work. The patient exercises at a gym three to four times per week. The patient’s mother is responsible for household, grocery shopping, cooking, cleaning, and laundry duties. The patient handles his own finances. When queried as to hobbies, he indicated that he likes to watch sports, including boxing, and enjoys good food.
2. History use of the terms Objective and Projective to classify a Personality Test
Meyer and Kurtz (2006) recommend the abandonment of objective and projective as descriptors of personality tests and the adoption of a new classification system for personality measures based on memory research. Meyer and Kurtz argue that the longstanding psychological labels have outlived their usefulness since they are (1) misleading. The authors observe that objective is no longer an accurate measure as it purports. (2) Scores have the effects of various threats to external validity that include respondent bias, scorer error, and settling effects. Objective appears as smoke screen for subjective measures while projective emanates from untenable theoretical concept that continues to create confusion in the field for a long time. The authors reckon that projective evidence is inconclusive test. Additionally, the two psychological terms are inaccurate and problematic to work with experts. According to Meyer and Kurtz (2006), objective term contains unwarranted connotations. Projective term acquires a negative view from professionals. After eliminating, the two traditional models the authors advocate for a better classification system based on well-documented findings in cognitive neuroscience. Meyer and Kurtz offer a range of alternative labels to replace the terms objective and projective psychological processes. A process-based framework will classify the personality tests. For instance, the self-attribution test will replace the traditional objective test, as the stimulus-attribution test will replace projective tests. Self-attribution tests takes the form of questionnaires that respondents should answer the following questions: (1) describe whether trait-descriptive statement is true. (2) Rate the degree that describes them. Some of the measures that assess self-attributed traits include motives and emotions. The response of self-attribution tests people apply motives, behavior, and feelings. Self-attribution tests contain two divisions: (1) people that judge the applicability of a test item to describe a longstanding pattern. (2) People that judge applicability of a test item to describe the behavior or experience. Stimulus-Attribution Tests is a measure that requires people to interpret difficult stimuli in multiple ways. The attribution process occurs in the same way people encounter difficult situations in the society. The stimulus-attribution responds to hard test stimuli by recognizing all the projections. One can label the inaccurate inferences as projections since they are attributes. All the projection represents attributions while not all attributions are projections. The self-attribution test tends to respond to stimulus-attribution tests frequently modified through people’s efforts. A process-based framework is vital to contrast mental activities that occur as people respond to self-attribution and stimulus-attribution tests. The self-attribution and stimulus-attribution test exist in performance-based tests.
3. Specific Tests
Meyer and Kurtz (2006) explain the performance-based tests that include Visual-Motor Gestalt tests applied for neurological screen, Implicit Association Test applied for different intelligence and neuropsychological measures. The performance-based tests require a respondent to perform structured behavioral tasks to evaluate predefined scoring criteria. Constructive tests require respondents to create novel products with minimal guidance. Rorschach and TAT tests the essential properties of the stimuli that only exist in the mind of the respondent. The informant-report tests derive knowledgeable informants, ratings, or descriptions. Observational test is a test score derived from observers’ ratings on the behavior exhibited in vivo or a controlled setting. Meyer and Kurtz propose a Squire framework of memory system employed in the classification of personality tests in the declarative measures as well as the non-declarative measures. One can distinguish the different categories in accordance to semantic, habit-learning, episodic, priming, emotional-response, and non-associative instruments. A tentative mapping of personality measure is a vital framework that will help to identify human faculty since it declares one’s values in a unique way, disposition, traits, and needs. Similarly, it the aspect of personality that represents learning based on modifications in the specialized performance systems enables people to discuss their enduring traits with others to assess the validity of the measures that by pass people’s declaration concerning themselves. The initial distinction between declarative and non-declarative nature of personality tests entails the mapping of specific memory sub systems such as a person’s life story that can define unique idiosyncratic features of his or her personality. Krishnamurthy et al. (2004) assert that psychological testing and assessment activities are central to the clinical and educational psychology. Historically, the process applied experimental psychology and mental testing movement, in contemporary psychology application is in the mental health facilities, neuropsychological, medical, and forensic practice. Psychological testing is an integral part in all the aspects of contemporary professional psychology. The author discusses application and utility of psychological testing in reference to clinical psychology practice. Some of the typical uses of psychological assessment include treatment-planning, decision-making, psychopathology, monitoring progress of treatment, and diagnosis. Psychology experts with specialties in clinical neuropsychology identify strengths and weakness of brain function. Rehabilitation psychologists evaluate the functional status, rehabilitation potential, and evaluation for forensic settings. Clinical health psychologists involve themselves with the assessment of health-related variables such as the adjustment of physical illness. The counseling psychologists involve themselves in the assessment of educational and vocational aptitudes as well as factors that relate with personal growth and development.
4. Important areas of competency involved in assessments
Krishnamurthy et al. (2004) state that assessment competency is a crucial prerequisite for the pre-doctoral internship placement. Some of the internship settings such as hospitals have multiple patient populations. Two recent surveys examine the expectation of pre-doctoral internship directors with reference to the interns’ knowledge and skills in psychological assessment. The results indicate that a large majority of internship programs focus on psychological assessment as the training directors expect the interns to become proficient in different assessment methods. The findings cite that competency in testing skills is one of the important activity during training interns in their future roles as professional psychologists. The intent of training directors is to enable them gain knowledge in the intellectual and personality tests. The graduate students do not have basic skills to help them conduct assessments performed at the internship facilities. Strong assessment training will strengthen the graduate students internship and job placement opportunities. The internship directors expect that the graduate programs will prepare the students in assessment skills in psycho diagnostics. Training in psychological assessment in the course of pre-doctoral internship is a means to correct deficiencies in graduate school training to extend the earlier training in the context of supervised practice. Some of the findings suggest that internship may fail to offer sufficient elaboration of assessment training to produce well-developed assessment competency for the clinical and counseling psychology graduates. The author stresses on the importance of assessment in clinical activity for psychologists that follow psychotherapy. The author confirms that sound training in psychological assessment is essential to the work of applied psychologists. A ongoing education and training for the practicing psychologists is crucial to enhance and retain their competency in psychological assessment. The APA’s guidelines for test-user qualifications will promote competent testing and assessment practice. Some psychologists engage in discussion to discuss the implementation of credentialing specific areas of assessment expertise.
APA (2003) informs six objectives of the guidelines of multicultural education. (1) To ensure psychologist conduct himself or herself ethically by respecting different cultural groups. (2)Serve as an interface between socialization experiences and cultural heritage that will enhance quality of education. (3) Recognize unique identity of different cultural communities from others in the society.(4) role of ethnicity and race to the development of a personal identity. (5) Promote racial equality and social justice to influence professional roles in the society. (6) Perform extensive research in policy development and cultural differences in respect to multiculturalism. Psychologists have the influence of many factors that include cultural heritage, gender socialization, socioeconomic experiences, ethnic, and racial identity. The cross cultural and multiracial literature that demonstrates that all people are multicultural beings that interact with other to understand their cultural perspectives.
Bornstein, R. F. (2007). COMMENT: Toward a Process-Based Framework for Classifying Personality Tests: Comment on Meyer and Kurtz (2006). Journal Of Personality Assessment, 89(2), 202-207.
Butcher, J. N. (2004). Personality Assessment Without Borders: Adaptation of the MMPI-2 Across Cultures. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 83(2), 90-104.
Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for Psychologists. (2003). American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.
Krishnamurthy, R. A. (2004). Achieving competency in psychological assessment: Directions for education and training. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 60(7), 725-739.
Meyer, G. J. (2008). On the Integration of Personality Assessment Methods: The Rorschach and MMPI. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 68(2), 297.
Nichols, D. S., & Greene, R. L. (2007). Dimensions of Deception in Personality Assessment: The Example of the MMPI-2. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 68(2), 251.