Domestic violence against women is a global issue which has no social, religious, cultural, geographical, national or economic barriers. Gender based violence does not select based on religion, language, ethnicity or race; it is believed to one of the common and serious human violation rights and is widely spreading. Violence against women as a problem carries a lot of effects not only within the social setting but it affects female victims’ physical and emotional health and general well being, it also has effects on family, children and the society at large.
Domestic violence on women holds them prisoners under certain restriction put by social setting such as kinship, family, norms and values; it also denies them the right to be involved in societal life. The great impact of domestic violence on women is that it hinders full participation and inclusion in social life. Conducting research on domestic violence against women is of essence for building a democratic society governed by principles of human rights.
- What is the magnitude of domestic violence against women?
- What is the prevalence of physical and psychological maltreatment against women in the society?
- What factors are associated with violence against women?
- How does domestic violence against women differ among rural and urban families?
Physical domestic violence against women among the lower socio-economic classes and women who are socially isolated is more prevalent. The middle and the higher socio-economic classes have higher prevalence of psychological domestic violence against women.
In families which the husband uses alcohol or any other substance, Physical and psychological violence against women is more prevalent.
Domestic violence against women is more prevalent to those who witnessed their fathers bet up their mothers in their childhood than those who never encountered this behavior.
Theories as to why violence against women occurs give insight into the changes needed to get rid and prevent that violence. The root cause of the abuse against women is the natural and preferred social belief that gives men the superiority over women. Furthermore there is a belief that women are inferior and that their role is to act under men. This is a belief of domination over; it pervades a lot from society and institution thus eradicating violence against women need changes at the most important levels of society. Such policies should be put in place to eliminate male dominance culture which subject women as objects, undermine their values, dehumanizing them, controlling their rights and being restricted in decision making.
There are other various approaches as to why domestic violence against women exist, there are five explanation to this; family system, social learning, biological/organic, psychopathological and feminist. Biological theory has been in existence for ages being in and out of fashion. Based on the recent literature review where domestic violence is concerned there are two observations concerned; the first is that head injury in men could lead them to be violent to their spouses or women. The second approach is based on sexual jealousy and the male effort to ensure sexual propriety on their partners. Most researchers have believed that biological factors play a key role in some cases, thou empirical evidence on such factors ideas is not so strong.
METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH METHODS
This chapter articulates the research methodology or procedure used to meet the objectives in chapter one. It mentions the study area, highlights the research design used, the target population, mentions the sample size, sampling techniques, data collection instrument to be employed
This study area used for this research was various nations across the world; China, United Kingdom, United States of America and Africa.
A population is a set of observations drawn from a population by a defined procedure.A population is a well defined set of people, services, elements, events and group of things or households under investigation.
The researcher involved the whole population United States who are victims domestic violence, the categories of the population was taken such as a few victims of domestic violence from the government personnel and institutions in these areas, and Non-governmental Organizations that dealt with this issue. This are the people who experienced the various effects of domestic violence, ranging from social, economic, cultural to political and were best placed to provide the necessary information.
Research design is the plan and structure of investigation so conceived as to obtain answers to research questions. It includes an expression of both the structure of the research problem and the plan of investigation used to obtain empirical evidence on the relationship between the variables of the study (Donald R cooper 2006).
The researcher applied a descriptive research design, which is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomenon to describe what exists, with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. . Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used as research design methods to ensure the great understanding and the importance of the issue.
The study aims to give more information on a given variable and shows relationship between variables. Descriptive study design helps the researcher to understand the root cause of the research problem. (Chordia et al 1997)
The study used both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data was obtained from self administered questionnaires, while secondary data was collected from published journals by daily newspapers, the website.
Main objective of the quantitative research was to get data on forms of domestic violence against women both in rural and urban areas and for the whole capital.
Stratified and multistage cluster sample approach was a way to get the findings on domestic violence against women under sample design. Its main objective was to get estimates on any indicators related abuse against women. The Clusters Database available at the State Department of Statistics of Georgia was used for sampling in updating the process that was performed.
The questionnaire designing was based on the World Health Organization’s, a “Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health on Domestic Violence against Women” so as to meet the requirements needed. It used two questionnaires; housed hold and women interviewee. The following data was collected:
- Housing characteristics of the households
- The background characteristics and behavioral patterns of the husband/partner;
- Background characteristics of women, marriage history;
- Forms of domestic violence
- Women's attitudes toward gender roles and violence
- Background characteristics and of the husband/partner; experienced by women during their lifetime, perpetrated by husband/partner
The main objective of qualitative research was to collect information which will make it possible to come up with key points of domestic violence in different levels and the existence of various institutions to help with the cases of domestic violence. The information collected was base on the following issues :
- Identifying the country’s’ features in order to come up with policies for combating domestic violence on women
- Understanding of the concept of violence by women and men, their perceptions and attitudes, and coping strategies
- Identifying the cultural and institutional peculiarities of domestic violence on women in Georgia
The qualitative data was collected in in-depth interviews, as well as two participant observation.
The main aim of in depth interview was to collect information on women who are exposed to domestic violence, it was collected on women who are subject to severe domestic violence and those that are likely to fall victim of the abuse. In depth interviews looked at the causes of domestic violence, the various strategies in which the women use in order to cope with the problem, general perception of men as the perpetrators and the social networks and supporting institutions that allows women to access awareness.
The objective of participant observation is to look at the sensitive cultural aspects of domestic violence against women and analyze the service providers’ performance and beneficiaries based on value based approach and gender.
The aim of the research was to ensure that ethical obligation is put to use on the findings such that they are properly interpreted and used to advance policy in development intervention. More often the research findings never get to reach the policy makers and advocates this are the people who are best positioned to use them. Health, social and personal costs incurred as a result of domestic violence against women gives an obligation to the researchers to ensure that the finding are applied in the real world. It is also of essence that the communities in which the studies were conducted receive the feedback.
The only way that the researchers have seen it being possible to improve the relevance of research is to involve direct groups and advocacy in participation either as partners or advisory committee. Such committees can be of great importance in helping with guidance on analysis interpretation and interpretation of results, study design and advice on wording of questions.
Once the data analysis is complete, the expected findings of the study should produce more comprehensive way of looking at domestic violence in United States. Most victims of domestic violence are intimate partners, individual that have a child in common, relatives. By using the earlier definition of domestic violence, the findings may provide a representation of how many women are affected by domestic violence. It may also give the amount of prevalence of domestic violence within a certain demographical area, gender and age category.
Domestic violence has gained attention leading to increase in funding for research on violence against women worldwide. The finding in this research was used to reflect the current knowledge on safety and consideration that needs to be undertaken in relation to domestic violence against women. Researchers can make a great contribution towards the women safety if they follow guidelines and stick to the objectives.
Many women fear for their lives after they after they have tried to leave or prosecute their abusive partners thus the question comes in if the legal system can help women feel safe after they have finished the process of prosecuting the perpetrator. The findings need to know if there are solutions to many women facing the domestic violence from their partners. Legal system should be more sensitive to women for ignorance of undertaking for prosecution, especially if it will bring trouble from her abusive partner. All the service providers should provide relevant safety requirements that will help the women to prosecute; a woman victim has been a victim of domestic violence before, during or even after prosecution of the perpetrator. Safety is an important requirement for the female victim.
The finding aimed at ensuring that the safety to the women victims is provided for, the police should promote arrest, give rise to conviction and give protection to female victim from engagement with the assailant. The research also looked at any kind of assistance be it social service or financial that should be available whenever necessary for victims who follow the prosecution to the end. Temporary shelters should be put in place to shelter them during the domestic violence and also help them through the recovery and transition, it should be a humble resource to help them move on and adjust with their lives.
Heavy burdens should be placed to the police officers to help in temporary protection and also to get information on availability of domestic violence shelter in the region inclusive of the phone numbers. The officer should be responsible for the follow up after the case is finished in the court. The police officers also need to be aware of the abusers put in probation for domestic violence, so as to enable them interact with the department and assist the victim abused if the one accused of abuse violates the court order. Such needs could be met if the departments from police develop domestic violence units, such unit help in the process of facilitation for those women who want to prosecute their abusers.
So many authors have given a glimpse of real life challenges for a lot of women violent relationship. As stated earlier in this paper one of the important functions of any society is the protection of its citizens from criminal victimization. The primary responsibility for protecting people in the United States is the use of criminal justice system. . Domestic violence is a problem that is widely spread geographically and its incidents so extensive, it is a global issue running across all boundaries as well as through racial, socio economic, class distinction and even cultural. Domestic violence has deep impacts on women’s health and general well being, its cost to the society individual and the health system is extreme.
New establishment and sustainability of state level funding for violence against women should be recommended. Programs and policies within the regions should be created which provide education and resources which provide healthy and relationships free from violence for families or any other personnel.
A state center of expertise with responsibility for in interpretation and evaluation of domestic violence against women which includes acquisition and evaluation of different health and data extracted from police, giving technical assistance on good practices and other programs and following up on crime victimization survey.
The Federal Department of Justice of the United States of America provides each victim and every individual with the rights depending on domestic level of violence: right to be treated with fairness and with respect for the victim's dignity and privacy, right to be reasonably protected from the accused offender
Another policy which should be implemented is that the state should create regular survey on victimization of women, and make the data available in all networks. The prevention of domestic violence against women is a process that needs the change of attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, and institutional norms and discrimination to support the creation of a safe, just, equitable, and healthy environment, so that women live violence-free lives
Programs need to be put in place in order to address battered women’s needs, including the ones that concentrate on livelihood skills and development of self efficacy. Victims of domestic violence should be involved in the implementation and program planning for it to be effective and accessible; they should be agents with ability to make changes to their own lives. The experts from public health should take an important part in connecting with Non Governmental Organization and any other voluntary organization in creating social support networks.
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