Developmental crises that demonstrate the normal evolution and growth of human beings where dramatic changes lead to abnormal responses
Situational crises arise in the case of extraordinary and uncommon events which an individual cannot control or forecast.
Existential crises relate to the internal conflicts which are closely connected to crucial human issues like responsibility, purpose, freedom, independence and commitment (Long, 2006).
Ecosystemic crises also entail disasters caused by human beings and natural disasters. The people find themselves in such disasters without their intention.
The founders of crisis theory include Rapoport in 1967 and 1970 who categorized crises into development crises, accidental crises and crisis of roles. Harper and Peterson, on the other hand, categorized crisis theories based on predictability and those which occurs in normal life circumstances. In 1978, Baldwin classified crises based on the emotional aspects. This entails life aspects that can be anticipated and those which are beyond control of human beings.
Acute crisis and grief reactions occur within a short period of time compared to PTSD. Acute crisis is more immediate while PTSD takes a longer time to be detected. Acute crisis is characterized by a short-term response to trauma while PSTD takes a long time before it is diagnosed (James, 2008). Acute crisis and grief reactions are associated with dissociative symptoms like emotional disconnection and temporary amnesia, as opposed to PSTD.
PSTD treatment entails psychotherapy that aims at reducing stress and trauma. This may include family therapy, group therapy and exposure therapy.
PSTD in adults is associated with high blood pressure. The adults suffering from PSTD are also associated with poor parental care. Children suffering with symptoms of PSTD are at a higher risk of causing self-injury and loss of memory (James, 2008). The children are also likely to experience the cases of disabilities, making the condition more severe in children than in Adults. PSTD symptoms may not be easily identified as opposed to the symptoms in adults.
Medication may differ from other perspectives like exercise, physical activity in reducing stress and trauma among the people suffering from PSTD condition.
The seven-staged model outlines the steps followed in tackling the crisis as follows:
The first stage involves planning and thorough assessment of the biological, social and psychological aspects of the crisis. The second stage involves creating a collaborative relationship and psychological contact (Corey, 2005). The third step involves identification of the major challenges relating to the crisis. The fourth step involves exploration of emotions and feelings. This is followed by generating and exploring alternatives available to curb the crisis. The action plan should be put in place in order to curb the crisis. Finally, booster sessions and follow-up activities should be put in place in order to curb the crisis.
The seven-step model differs from the six-staged model because the six stage model involves more of listening sessions as opposed to the seven-staged model (Corey, 2005). The six-staged model also gives more emphasis on safety of the patient. The patient is also more involved in curbing the crisis in the six-staged model while in the seven-staged model for the patient is not fully involved.
Developmental attachment elaborates the impact of the close relationship between the child and the caregiver. The close relationship between the child and the caregiver creates bonds between them (James, 2008). This influences the development stages and growth of the child in the long term and how the child copes with life and the environment in general. The affection bond influences the social, psychological and behavioral development of the child in the long-term.
Disorganized attachment is expressed when the caregiver or parent expose the child to abuse and fear. This makes the child detached from the environment, making them difficult to explore and experience the environment fully (Lindemann and Cohen, 1944). The child faces the distress due to emotional and physical abuse by the parents or caregivers. The child will, therefore, view life as threatening and unfriendly. This also leads to problems in the development of the child due to little interaction with the environment. The child will find it difficult to cope with challenges in the day to day life (James, 2008). The cases of trauma and depression may also affect the child due to such disorganized attachment.
The suicide victims are characterized by issues like drug abuse and alcohol problems. The instances of undiagnosed depression are also a characteristic of most suicide victims (Bloom, 2006). Suicide victims are also commonly associated with relationship problems. The suicide victims are also characterized by financial and job problems.
The assessment of suicide entails taking into consideration the behavior of an individual. In the case of a depressed person, counseling programs should be put in place in order to curb the situation. The individual may also be assessed based on the dangerous objects they keep in their rooms like ropes and poisons. The age of an individual is also a factor of consideration in the assessment of suicide risks and threats (Bloom, 2006).
The survivors of suicide often experience long-term problems, especially in cases where toxic substances were used ((Lindemann and Cohen, 1944)). This may lead to other health problems in the body of the victim. The survivors may also experience stigma in the society.
Suicide victims can be treated through psychological counseling and engagement in social groups (Bloom, 2006). This will help the survivor to feel a sense of appreciation in the society. The survivors should also be taken through rehabilitation sessions in the case of drug abuse and alcoholism.
Sexual assault, abuse and domestic abuse play a major role in causing the attachment disorder and potential grief (George, 2013). This is because it leads to depression and trauma. The child will, therefore feel not part of the society due to the unfriendly environment. These types of abuse lead to grief and feelings of loneliness. The aspects of fear among the victims are caused by such circumstances. In the star fish example, the author was addicted to heroin. Heroin therefore sound more important to her than her personal life. She was addicted to the drugs to an extent that they could mask the pain in her heart. The addiction to heroin also made the author detached from the society leading to the feeling of isolation and fear.
The abuse of heroin, therefore made the author to experience the attachment disorder and potential grief in her life. This condition made her depressed and she could not freely interact with the other members of the society. The addiction to heroin made the author fully dependent on the drug leading to negative health effects which lead to alteration of her life.
Corey, G. (2005). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (7th Ed.).
Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
George, Donna. Starfish (2013) Available at Amazon.com
James, R.K. (2008). Crisis intervention strategies (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Bloom, M., Fischer, J. & Orme, J.G. (2006). Evaluating practice: Guidelines for the accountable professional. (Fifth Edition). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Long, D.D., Tice, C. J., & Morrison, J. D. (2006). Macro social work practice: A strength’s perspective. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole/Thomson.
Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International - Google Books. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=3v2q5aF7Q3AC&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85&dq=Lindemann+and+Cohen+ptsd&source=bl&ots=3rA6z_1n3R&sig=rv7CJj_JzlVq3MxtoQNJEGIZhNA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=q7kBU5-sO9CihgfAuYHAAg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Lindemann%20and%20Cohen%20ptsd&f=false