World War I experiences
World War I refers to the first global historic war that originated in Europe, but equally affected other regions. It particularly it began on July 28, 1914 and ended by November 11, 1918, traversing for over four years. The World War I involved the greatest powers of the world at that time that included the United Kingdom, France, and Russia. The stages of development of the war entailed two-fold process that is the conventional and the expedients. The former lasted for around two years after it began in 1914 and ended in 1916 and the latter picked it from then and proceeded with the same up to the end of the war in 1918. Conventional warfare was a battle of supremacy to determine the most powerful nation among the western world. This fight saw Germany emerge victorious in as much as it is suspected that they engineered the war. Other causes of the war ranged from competition by the imperialists, nationalism and militarism and these emerged even as there was a creation of pre-war alliances1.
This war started as a joke when a Serbian military student killed a couple from Austria. This assassination resulted from a reaction towards nationalism, which resulted from modeling afresh of the provinces of Yugoslavia. At such times some countries came together forming alliances depending on their regions, this situation lead to an opposite reactionary measure from countries who felt neglected. The stage for war was set up through the tension created that resulted into confrontations among the warring states. After the assassination of the Austrian by a Serbian, Austria claimed that the assassination was plotted by Yugoslavia hence claiming war against Yugoslavia4. Yugoslavia had enough support from Russia due to the defensive treat the two nations had hence making Austria to hesitate to pose war against Yugoslavia. Because of this Germany went into an agreement with Austria and signed a treaty, which lead Germany into defending Austria from Russia. Germany was willing to get involved in the war for some reasons such as considering the assassination as a step towards ceasing ground in Hapsburg, but had Austria objected their offer, Germany would have been highly susceptible to the neighboring foes such as Yugoslavia and Russia. Germany also took into consideration the fact that capturing Yugoslavia would surmount to major blow for Russia in Eastern European front. Austria issued an order compelling all Serbians to flee Albania but none of the Serbians heeded the demand, as this would be a direct attack and blow to their Government.
The reluctance of Serbians to obey Austria’s desire encouraged them to even mobilize a rebellion against Austria, and Yugoslavia absolutely refused to respond to Austria’s order, war was consequently declared by Austria on July 19173. Austria intended to start by capturing a small section of Serbian territory from which it would bargain to ensure the execution of their demands. On the other hand, Russia was reportedly mobilizing its troops with a core intention of protecting Yugoslavia from the looming Austria invasion. Whereas Germany’s intent to partake in the battle was being delayed by the British threat; although the latter was only interested in initiating harmony between the Eastern front governments, by ensuring that the differing parties problems are resolved through discussions.
The other reason Germany was willing to join in the war was for their own advantage; they thought this would make Greece and Bulgaria is at their mercies and would have weakened Russia to the point of making them back down. Russia eventually backed off not for the reason aforementioned but because of its domestic instabilities which could not allow them continue t be at war; in the event they decided to continue war with Germany, they would have been defeated at that time1. The revolution went through a series of extensive stages that consumed the countries strength to fight with either Austria or Germany by 1914. The involvement of Germany was further strengthened by an alliance with Turkey, which brought together two countries with adequate conviction of trouncing over any potential Eastern front opposition. As Germany’s major threat would have been England but projected that if Russia were to be the aggressor, England would hardly enter the war. However, Germany had initial intentions to invade and conquer all European nations, but in mean time, it had to come up with a plan to delay England’s interest in the war.
Russia in this regard therefore took a stand not to be the one who cause an attack for the sake of the success of the peace talks. This move was prompted by the fact that Germany wanted to play the good one and incarcerate Russia but Russia became clever and responded wisely. Germany did this by creating an impression that Russia was the provoker of the war by pointing out that all the conflicts existing between Serbia and Austria was a local conflict, and that external powers such as England were hardly supposed to take part or side in their Eastern front rows. The other European nations perceived Germany’s claim as a decisive point but still prepared themselves in case the war between the great powers reached or affected them1.
On August 1914 after German declared War against France claiming that France infringed upon the territory of Germany, the world war two began officially. In order to attack France in the best way possible, Germany requested to move its troops to Belgium but Belgium tuned them down. This denial caused a Belgium attack by Germany leading to its fall. England alarmed that it would enter the war unless German withdrew from Belgium. Belgium was defeated thus giving room for the Germany’s soldier to start attacks on France from its borders. Germany soon ended up defeating France as well and later the British at Battles of Namur and Mans respectively. The Eastern Front had Russia trying to drive back the Austrians as well as infringing on the territory of German. Russia placed all its concentration on Austria. This effort by Russia received a boost and enhanced by the fact that Germany was at the moment concentrating on France.
The same advantage gave them a chance to raid some parts of Germany’s jurisdiction. Again, Russia’s mobilization efforts were executed in a swifter manner that Germany never expected, nor predicted. Russia was therefore able to overrun a significant section of the Eastern Prussia before Germany could even react. Russia defeated the Austrians due to their lack of coordination with the German troops. Germany’s fall gradually started 1915. Its economy started declining in the face of several weaknesses within the political structure, strategizing, and military, thus being defeated completely by 1918. At this time, Russia was going through its revolution. Having recorded a good number of resolutions by 1917, the period, which the war ended, Russia was growing in greater heights. The revolution which destroyed the tsarist autocracy and lead to the creation of the Russian SFSR. The revolution in Russia saw the Emperor forced to abdicate while the old regime get replaced by the Russian provisional government, which happened on February 1917 as the first major aspect of the revolution3.
Another revolution focused on Petrograd through chaos, which led the imperial parliament assume control of Russian nation thereby forming Russian Provisional Government. The last Russian emperor became abdicated with people and social groups advocated for the government control of various militias. The revolution was highly influenced by a military setback due to the World War I conflicts. The Russian military was left in a state of mutiny from the effect of the war. Reconstruction and political developments were realized despite Russia’s participation in the war. Some advancements included period of dual power. The revolution also contributed to Russia’s withdrawal from the World War I by signing a Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This treaty was signed with Germany to make Russia withdraw from the war a signal that could easily result into peace2.
After signing the treaty and expecting that things would change for the better, they even became worse as fresh wars erupted between the Bolshevik and the anti-Bolshevik in Russia. Due to the enormous nature of the disagreements between the two warring groups, it could clearly manifest that the war was to continue for years. In the end the Bolshevik became victors in the war and through the long lasting and tiring revolution, the nation Russia in its modern state was born. After the rebirth, the former name of Russia changed to the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics otherwise abbreviated as USSR. To any other individual who did not experience the pre and aftermaths of the war can think it was a mere experience3.
First, the world was divided into two blocks, those who were in support for Germany and those against communism and hence not supporting Germany. Just like in any bad or warring situation, a horrible experience was foreseen most so in the important facets of life like the social context, the economic and political frameworks. The paper as was aspired has distinctively reviewed the actual WWI clashes and the consequential experiences that witnesses and victims went through, with the proceedings of the Eastern Front, given exceptional focus. It tentatively establishes a firsthand experience regarding the clashes and the Russian Civil War or Revolution as well as German volatility, before concluding with a closing statement.
- Browder, Robert Paul, and Kerensky, Alexander F. (eds.) The Russian Provisional Government. Stanford, (1917) 196.
- Mawdsley, Evan. The Russian Civil War. New York, NY: Pegasus Books, (2007): 1-362.
- Stone, Norman. The Eastern Front 1914-1917. Oxford, OX: Penguin Books Limited, (2008): 1-352.
- Serge, Victor, Memoirs of a Revolutionary, 1901-1941 (London, 1963);