Comparative politics is the comparison and study of domestic politics all over the country. Political affairs are the fights in any group for authority that will give one or more individuals the capability to make verdicts for the bigger group. Power is the skill to impact others or enforce one’s wanting to them. The comparative technique is a way to make contrasts and make deductions at the end of the case studies. Political science scrutinizes societies because they describe what is imaginable in the political world by setting out the guidelines and organizations of how politics works.
With our overview of the state institution in hand, we try to look at the main differences in how some of these institutions can be constructed in relation to one another. The essay attempts to describe the general portraits of these systems. In reality, numerous categories exist within these systems. The paper attempts to compare and contrast the parliamentary and presidential systems. It argues out by using advantages and disadvantages of the two systems (Tucker, 1961). Finally, there is a discussion to show which of the systems among the two is more democratic.
Compare and contrast
Division of power- the division of power in both the parliamentary and the presidential system is between the head of state and the government. Matters that require quick decision-making are left to the state leader since they are both chosen by the citizens or members of the parliament.
Elections- In both systems the head of States is elected. The only difference is the parties involved in the election process and the power that the selected individual is subjected to.
Government- In either case, there is the formation of the government that helps the head of state in the decision-making process. The government is also composed of several elected leaders. The leaders take part in some critical arguments for the wellbeing of the country (Neil, 2004).
Another key difference is that the position of the head of government and that of the head of state is typically fused together in the presidency. Unlike in the parliamentary system where the position of head of state and where there is the division of power between the head of government and the head of state. Much of the power being left to the head of government (prime minister).
In the parliamentary system, the president may be the head of state who is indirectly elected by the legislature, or a monarch who has directly inherited the office. Their powers are frequently little and are not ceremonial, and they are rarely exercised. On the contrary, in the presidential system, the head of state is directly elected by the public, and he serves for a particular period. The president has all the power and exercises all powers anywhere.
The practice of voting in the prime minister is left to the legislature in the parliamentary system. The political parties vote in the prime minister of their choice, and typically the party with the majority of the leaders wins. Therefore, the prime minister comes from the party with a majority of the leaders. On the contrary, in the presidential system the power of voting in the president is left to the public who directly vote for the leader of their choice. The process takes long, but the chosen leader represents the interests of the public.
Time of service- in the presidential system, the time of service for the elected leader is normally from four to seven years. It is hard for the president to alter with the set time since it involves an involving process. Both the government and legislature must take place in the exercise. In the opposite, time of service for the prime minister is undefined. Frequently he serves for a longer time unless he is removed by a vote of no confidence passed by the necessary stakeholders
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of presidential system
The public is given an opportunity to elect the leader of their choice. Therefore, the resultant head represents the grievances of the public in the government.
After a definite period, the voters can re-elect the leader if they think he is performing well, or they can as well vote him out of office. Therefore, the system gives the public another chance to elect a leader whom they have confidence in him.
President is directly elected and can draw on a national mandate to create and enact legislation.
Decision-making in the government is faster and efficient since the president has more power and can make decisions on the behalf of the government.
Disadvantages of presidential system
If the elected president does not perform as per his/her manifesto, it is hard to remove until his term is over.
In the case of misuse of power, it is hard to correct the president since he has all the mandate and power to do anything in the nation. The elected seat is ceremonial.
Wrong decisions made by the president are irreversible since he is guaranteed with the power to make decisions concerning the welfare of the nation.
Advantages of parliamentary system
In case the prime minister does not perform well he can be removed anytime by way of a vote of no confidence. Therefore, this helps in keeping the prime minister on toes to serve the nation entirely.
For a decision to be passed, it involves many consultancies since the prime minister on his own does not have the power to give a decision if he has not consulted.
Disadvantages of parliamentary system
The public does not have the power to elect the prime minister, and they might feel that they have less control over the executive and passing of legislation.
Even if the prime minister is performing well, but he loses the confidence of the parties, then he can be removed by way of a vote no confidence (Hauss, 2012).
Which of the two is more democratic?
The presidential system is a more democratic system than the parliamentary system due to various factors. To begin with, it is more democratic since the public is involved in the process of choosing on who will steer the nation for the next couple of years.
The system is also more democratic in that the division of power is in most cases distributed to all the parties of course with much power residing on the majority side.
The presidential system is more democratic since there is an existence of a direct relationship between the government and the voters. The development of the country involves both the parties.
Hauss, C., & Haussmann, M. (2012). Comparative Politics: Domestic Responses to Global Challenges. Cengage Learning.
Neil, P. H. (2004). Essentials of comparative politics. New York, NY: WW Norton&Co.
Tucker, R. C. (1961). Towards a comparative politics of movement-regimes. American Political Science Review, 55(02), 281-289.