Sandoval explains that color should d not be a determinant for all women whether black, poor or Latin to assume a political position. Differential consciousness encompasses radical and cognitive mapping and the major oppositional types of consciousness are determined by five main forms of the social hierarchy namely the equal rights; the revolutionary; the separatist; and the differential modes. Differential consciousness recognizes and incorporates all the other form of consciousness. The organization of resistance through equal rights, functional, supremacist and the revolutionary modes contributes to consciousness (Sandoval, 2000).The emergence of women movements in the 1970s and 1980s as a form of consciousness which arose due to differential praxis. Consciousness among various groups has motivated studies focusing on feminism, marginality studies, race, sex and ethnicity and the motive of the studies is to increase consciousness and the understanding of the issues (Sandoval, 2000).
Bartky's notion of consciousness differs from that of Sandoval because Barky believes consciousness is a contradictory and conflict among people. Barky explain that feminist consciousness is an anticipation of what should be and as such it is more than a fantasy. Feminist consciousness reflects the external managerial conditions that transform various situations by negating the various perspectives. Feminist consciousness enables people to discover the essence of social reality (Barky, 1990). An individual's consciousness about victimization helps him or her to discover priveledges in the society. Barky argues that feminist consciousness is as a result of the sexist system that encouraged the discrimination of women. Consciousness encourages people to embrace social reality by transforming the people's experience and thoughts. Further, Barky argues that consciousness enables people to differentiate between honorable and dishonorable occasions. Accordingly, feminist consciousness refers to the consciousness of a human being (Barky, 1990).
Haraway argues that feminist objectivity can be embodied by comprehending how the visual systems function psychically, technically and socially. Various arguments about feminism theorize the grounds of trusting more especially for the vantage positions of the subjugated. The subjugated poisonings should be subjected to critical examination, deconstruction, and interpretation and decoding. According to Haraway, denial, the positioning of inquiry leads to critical inquiry and the detail of duty. The main requirements for passionate detachment are acknowledgment and critical partiality (Haraway, 1997). Harraway explains that there is only one point from which objectivity can be practiced, and that is the standpoint of man, the master, and God. The god trick is to a large extent self-identical and therefore optioning is mandatory when grounding knowledge that revolves around the visions' imagery. The feminist accountability needs knowledge that has been tuned to instead of dichotomy. Feminist embodiment focuses on the field of the node, responsibilities and the inflections in the feminist orientation. Feminism is a critical vision that are created by the critical positioning in the generates a social space that is nonhomogenous. Haraway looks at feminism from the view of objectivity instead of positioned rationality (Haraway, 1997).
Conversely, Hill Clintons argues that group organizations and intersectional ties have introduced complexities that shed light on the relationship that exists between the Black feminist thought and the standpoint theory. The individuals in a group do not have the same experiences and as such have a different interpretation concerning issues. She acknowledges that the paradigm of intersectionality stresses on how gender, class and race construct an individual (Hill, 1998). The group based experiences more so those that the African American women share as a collectivity are mandatory for the creation of standpoints that stimulate political actions that are collective. Hill Clinton asserts that despite the fact that there is heterogeneity among the African American women; the differences in their experiences are determined by intersections such as age, residence, hair texture, sexual orientation and country of origin. The family relations are neither just nor fair; a family should not be used as a metaphor for constructing a clear understanding of the group processes. The social roles define most of the black women, and this influences how they respond to various situations. Therefore, situated standpoints reflect how the various intersections define the African-American women in The USA because intersectionality determines how the African American women relate to other groups in the American society. Vision may be an imagination, but pragmatic actions are required to deal with the injustices that the woman is subject to in the society. Therefore, standpoints should not be abandoned but instead women should strive to understand social complexities in the society (Hill, 1998).
Bartky, Sandra. 1990. Towards a Phenomenology of Feminist Consciousness. Femininity and Domination: Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression. New York and London: Routledge. Read: p.11-12, 14(2ndparagraph)-15 & 21Sandoval, Chela. 2000.U.S. Third World Feminism: Differential Social Movement 1.Methodology of the Oppressed Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press. Read: p.42-45, 52-56, 61-63.Haraway, Donna. 1997. The Persistence of Vision. Writing on the Body: Female Embodiment and Feminist Theory. Eds. Conboy, Nadia Medina, and Sarah Stanbury. New York: Colombia University Press. Read: p.286-292.
Hill Collins, Patricia. 1998. Some Group Matters: Intersectionality, Situated Standpoints, and Black Feminist Thought. Fighting Words: Black Women and the Search for Justice. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.Read: p.201-211 & 224-228