1.To determine a definition of the domestic terrorism is not easy task.
On a territorial basis, it is opposed to the international terrorism, as the participants of domestic terrorism are citizens of one state, and the consequences of their terrorist activities do not go beyond the country. The domestic terrorism may be associated even with the activities of government agencies and with the struggle of the opposition against the existing political system; however, in the current situation it is more closely related to the violence perpetrated by individuals or small groups of people within the country towards civilians and government officials.
The far-right group Ku Klux Klan is a best-known example of a terrorist organization in US history. As it is cited in the book 'Ku Klux Klan: history of racism and violence', 'an immediate impetus for the Ku Klux Klan was Civil War itself and Reconstruction that followed' (Bullard,7). Many veterans of the Confederate Army did not accept new orders, especially the abolition of slavery. Later the organization was revived as a response to the Civil rights movement, also speaking for giving special rights for the descendants of the first US citizens, who won the War of Independence. Researchers agree on the fact that the organization did not emerge as a terrorist one, but as a secret society with vague objectives, similar to the Masonic. Nevertheless, racist context made the activity of the organization brute. Gradually, with an increase in power and amount of members of the organization, increased the number of victims and the degree of severity. A complex information network for murder and arson was created. Groups from 10 to 500 people acted extremely quickly and left no witnesses. Murders were violent and victims were hanged, drowned, mutilated. It is also worth noting that the object of terror were not the only Black people, but White Republicans too, as well as soldiers and officers of the federal army. Terrorists attacked any White, who had arrived from the North for work among the Afro-Americans.
I think that domestic terrorism is a serious threat to national security because of actions of its followers, and even because of the very existence of such followers and groups. This contributes to the spread of fear, hatred and intolerance that make a constructive solution to any problem impossible and even exacerbate it. As it is known, the main threat of terrorism is not only the direct harm caused to them victims of crime. It causes not less damage to public safety and constitutional order. Terrorists sow the fear in the society, as well as a sense of helplessness because of nameless and omnipresent threat - this is only the most obvious consequences of the lack of domestic counter-terrorism policy.
2. The "Political Islam" has gone beyond the Muslim world, becoming the subject of an alarm the world's attention.
There is no doubt - what is happening within the Muslim community, will be the determining factor in world development in the XXI century. The main thing that is going on there - is the growing influence of militant Islamic fundamentalism. Although the origins of Islamic fundamentalism back to the rich past of the Muslim world, the main feature of it is the focus on the future. In addition, that makes it a serious threat to the entire world, including the United States.
The basic idea of Islamic fundamentalism is that 'the weakness and subservience of Muslim societies must be due to the faithlessness of Muslims, who have strayed from God's divinely revealed path and instead followed secular and materialistic ideologies and values of the West or of the East - capitalism or Marxism' (Esposito, 132).
Therefore, anti-Western attitude in the Islamic world is not something new. There is, however, doubt that the preaching clergy of militant Islamic fundamentalism give it the new content, opening an outlet for anger and hatred of the broad masses of the Muslim population.
This potential was accumulated among the masses for years, but its origin it is not related to the West. First, it is associated with the internal problems of Muslim societies, economic difficulties and political instability in the Arab and Muslim world. Warriors of the Islamic fundamentalism try to attribute all failures of Arabs and Muslims to US hegemony in the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Many believe that the "trigger" here was the Gulf war, which demonstrated the strength of America and weakness of the Arab world. Moreover, this touched the souls of men, no matter their political sympathies were and which side they belonged to.
Today fundamentalists seek political power in order to radically change the social system in their countries, in the Muslim ones and the rest of the world. Anyway, the 9/11 air attack on the United States leaves no doubt in this. In addition, the majority of fundamentalists see the return to violence, to medieval methods of struggle, as the best way to defeat the followers of the Western way of life or just moderate progressives.
Of course, the proponents of this position in the Muslim world form minority, however, the number of militant fundamentalists constantly growing. They already represent a serious threat to the governments in the Arab countries. Islamic fundamentalism already has such profound impact on the Arab world like the age-old conflict with Israel or "fresh" confrontation with Iran.
Fighting Islamic fundamentalists not only cause unrest in the Middle East and North Africa, it threatens to change the balance of power in the world, formed after the end of the Cold War. The paradox lies in the fact that it was Islamic fundamentalists more than anyone else, have reaped the fruits of the new democratic climate that emerged after the collapse of communism and after Arab spring in the Muslim world. Now the fundamentalists are the only organized opposition in many Arab countries, and the authorities in others. Thus, Islamic fundamentalism has a huge internal energy, dynamism large margin. It is looking towards the future. It not only calls for the fight against infidels, not only invests banners in the hands of their warriors, he cares about them and their families. Moreover, most importantly, that it has an international nature. An example of the ISIS, where fight Muslims from all around the world, even from wealthy Europe and the United States, perfectly strengthens this statement.
Bullard, Sara. The Ku Klux Klan. Montgomery, Ala.: Klanwatch, a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, 1991. Print.
Esposito, John L. The Islamic Threat. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.