Starting from ancient times, Egypt placed a very important position in the Arab world, presenting the styles of culture and traditions. Many other Arabic countries borrowed much from Egypt, admiring how Egyptian rulers were managing to reach the better life and being rich and powerful. There was even a saying in ancient times: “the Egyptians write, the Lebanese publish, and the Iraqis read.” This saying was reflected in historiography and many social studies.
The list of the famous Arabic writers in the ancient times include such names as Taha Hussein, Tawfiq al-Hakim, ‘Abbas al-‘Aqqad, and others. Nowadays, “it is hard to find an Egyptian name having such status in the Arab world.” (p. 160). Much of the useful information about Egypt in relation to its culture, traditions and literature were published in famous magazines in 1930-1940, including the monthly al-Hilal, al-Arabi, al-Abram, al-Hayat. Some of them were being published in Kuwait, others in London, etc. Popular radio stations also made their contribution to understanding the Egyptian culture. These were such radios and TVs as Voice of the Arabs, modern al-Jazeera, etc.
A very significant problem was “the decline in education at Egyptian universities” (p. 161) that was a crucial disadvantage for the future and life of the upcoming generations. Economic factor played a very important role in life of people. “Egypt had the highest per capita income in the Arab world with the exception of Lebanon. Now it has the lowest per capita income, with the exception of Somalia, Mauritania, and Yemen”. (p. 161). It allows to develop good international relations with the other countries, strengthening military forces, growing political influence, improving education and good cultural life.
The disadvantages in Egypt were related to American forces help that was not that effective for improvement the power of Egypt. The reason was the USA as a leader country was focused also on the other countries such as Lebanon and Iraq. The other problem in Egypt was related to the “economic weakness and poor performance” that was reflected in the “low rate of saving, a persistent balance of trade deficit, and the weak performance of the two main commodity sectors: agriculture and manufacturing.” (p. 162)
For many years Egypt was a colony, so it was very problematic to organize a good and high-quality life for the citizens of this country. Egyptians governments were oppressed by colonizers who “have always made use of it because it is less expensive in blood and money.” (p. 163) For example, in the past Britain ruled this country by means of minority parties, and now Americans rule Egypt by president’s advisers and the some members of the National Democratic Party.
The nationalization of Suez Canal happened in 1956, when British colonizers experienced to have not as good times in their country. Instead, the USA and the USSR those times were the ruling countries in the political context of the middle of 20th century. Two major players prevailed in the political scene, so Egypt managed to overcome many problems with Britain. France was also an important player in that time.
The analysis of political circumstances in the 20th and 21st century proves that there are significant reasons to state that nowadays Egypt cannot refuse from help of the USA in providing national and international policies. Egyptian middle class, who is more or less involved in working in the field of agriculture, is not ready to provide activities on their own.
There are many evidences that in the period of 1950-1960s Egypt lacked the freedom for all the citizens to express their opinions according to many issues of political and social life. Of course, they also lacked of the good leaders who could gave them an opportunity to solve economical and social problems.
Galal, Amin, "Egypt and the Arabs, Egypt and the United States," Egypt in the Era of Hosni Mubarak: 1981-2011, pp. 159-171.