- Where did most of New York City’s immigrants come from in the 17th Century (before and after 1664)? The 18th Century? The middle of the 19th Century? The End of the 19th Century? Give examples.
Before 1664, New York’s (New Netherland at that time) immigrants came from different parts of Europe, particularly Western Europe. Settlers were from Belgium, France, Germany, and Holland among others. The Dutch also brought in black slaves in the country. After 1664, when control of New Netherland went to the English colonizers, more English settlers came to New York. During the 18th Century, majority of immigrants were Scottish and Irish. During the 19th Century, immigrants from the same aforementioned countries continued to settle in New York. Nonetheless, the government observed an increase in Irish settlers as a result of famine in Ireland. Other immigrants were from Scandinavia and other parts of Europe.
- What sorts of people came to New York in the 17th, 18th, and the 19th Centuries?
During the 17th Century, most people that came to New York then were merchants and their families participating in trade, especially during 1664. Sara Roelofse’s family was one of those prominently involved in trade. Merchants that engaged in slave trade also brought in African slaves. Others that came to New York during the 17th and 18th Century were seeking religious freedom. Robert Livingston, for instance, was exiled in Scotland because his religious views. As a result, he migrated to New York. During the 19th Centuries, people that came to New York were mainly looking for greater economic opportunities. Millions of Germans that came to New York looked for properties while Asians wanted to access to economic opportunities.
- Why was it easier for poor, unskilled workers to come to America in the 19th Century?
It was easy for poor, unskilled workers to come to America during the 19th Century because immigration was less strict then. It was during a time when the immigration has not regulated the entry of migrants to the country. Moreover, they were able to afford the journey from Europe to America because they posed as servants in exchange for their emigration to the country.
- Why were many Europeans forced to leave their homes in the 19th Century?
Socio-economic decline forced people to leave their homes in the 19th Century. The Great Irish famine in Ireland, for instance, forced the Irish to leave and settle in America.
- What are ethnic groups and how are they identified, both internally and externally?
Ethnic groups refer to people that share the same culture, ancestry, and social norms or traditions. Internally, ethnicities may be identified based on their shared beliefs and practices, as well as experiences. People identify with one another internally because of shared values and interests. Externally, ethnicities may be identified by observable factors such as physical appearance (ex. skin color), which do not accurately represent culture. External identification may therefore involve labels on ethnic groups that stigmatize them.
Isaacs, Ann Katherine. 2007. Immigration and emigration in historical perspective. Edizioni Plus.