Democracy is one of the most prevailing form of government that is in place in majority of the countries. However there are number of variants being practiced in democracy. Some of these countries follow presidential form of government while others parliamentary form of democratic proceedings.
Country Chosen: Pakistan
Pakistan came into existence after the end of colonial rule from British rule. It has adopted a Parliamentary form of democracy. In such form of democracy the executive is the authority in place that comes into power through the direct voting of the people. Elections are held after a period of five years and the representatives are chosen through a direct method of ballot processing. Pakistan has a bicameral legislation in place with the two houses in place being the upper house and lower house. Upper House constitutes the Senate and Lower house entails the parliament. The Former requires an indirect selection process and the latter is done through the election process which involves direct opinion and response of the people who decide the future of individuals.
Party based elections are held after a fixed period of five years stated in the constitution of Pakistan. The Constitution itself is that of 1973 that was enacted to define clear objectives and guidelines for an democratically elected government.
Prime Minister is the Chief Executive and has all the powers vested in him (Singh, 81). He has a cabinet under his rule and the cabinet comprises of the federal ministers who supervise the different departments and ministries. In Pakistan, President is the representative of the Federation and he plays role towards the appointment of the governors.
The comparison between United States democracy depicts a different outlook of democracy. Presidential form o f government. It has two houses, the Upper House and the Lower house. Senate represents the Upper house while House of Representatives compromise the Lower House (Bond and Smith, 48). Similarities are that of presence of the two houses in both countries. The presence of a free judiciary is another element of similarity between these two states. Approval of any bill or move by the Cabinet is subject to the approval of the Parliament/ Congress in the two countries, only then would a move become part of legal sanctioning paradigm. President is directly elected through the ballot process. The president comes into power for a period of Four years.
A difference between the two forms of governments and the constitutional requirement is the fact that in America the President can come into power for a maximum of two terms, while in Pakistan the head of state may enthrone himself to the seat of Chief Executive for a tenure that may be more than two periods.
Question # 2 :
Thoughts about Public Policy:
Presence of an effective Public policy is an integral part of the government’s working and it is a means to its survival. Clearly defined policy allows understanding the mindset and manifesto of the government and gives the people a direction and reading of the pulse of government’s motives and objectives.
The public policy is often presented in form of the Committees of Parliament or long term to short term plans and goals determination.
Public policy is a generator of the development in society. Through its actions and policies the areas of neglect in the society are highlighted. The underprivileged are accommodated through the policy, job creating opportunities are crafted through it. The overall outlook of society is defined and developed through it.
It is totally valid and rational to use the Pubic policy as a force and enhancer as long as it is directed towards developing the society in a positive way. However a consideration and constraint in Public policy is defining the core objectives behind the policy undertaken. All the actions, intentions and scheme of plans undertaken must be in line with that of the Constitution of the State, and must also be in line with the foreign policy and ideology of the country (JRosado). In case of United States, it is the Declaration of Independence that gives every individual equal right and privilege and in the same frame puts the onus of responsibility upon the state to ensure the adoption of fair means for the wellbeing of its citizens.
Using it as a force to eradicate hunger, illiteracy and other social imbalances all these serve good towards the implementation of Public policy as an element of social change (Wedel).
Question # 3:
Public Policy in United States of America:
For enactment of the Public Policy, committees are in place in United States of America. The Congress has number of committees working in different domains. All these are working in the legal ambit of constitution and municipal law and each is driven by motive of bringing about change, development and prosperity. The areas of implementation include health care, education, labor empowerment, environmental considerations and development of society on progressive footings (Milakovich and Gordon, 84). Other committees include judicial committees and health care and safety committees.
Technology has enabled making Public policy a more vital tool. Through the use of communication means, the gulf between the masses and the policy makers has been narrowed down. Fast means of relief are achieved through it. Surveys, research and other modes of findings in the social sphere are all driven by technology which has made the overall processing more accurate, timely and productive as a whole.
Bond, Jon R. and Kevin B. Smith. The Promise and Performance of American Democracy. Cengage Learning, 2011.p. 48
JRosado. Public Policy and Social Change. 26 May 2013. 14 November 2013 <http://johnrosado.net/other-items-and-statements/public-policy-and-social-change/>.
Milakovich, Michael E. and George J. Gordon. Public Administration in America. Cengage Learning, 2011. pg. 84
Singh, Hoshiar. Public Administration: Theory and Practice. Pearson Education India, 2012.
Wedel, J. R., Shores, C., Feldman, G., & Lathrop, S.(2005). Toward an anthropology of public policy. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 600(1). 30-51.