Report about Spain country
Report about Spain Country
- Capital: Madrid, 40°26′N 3°42′W
- Area: 505,992 km2, 195,364 sq mi).
- Population: 46, 704,314 (2013)
- Population Density: 92/km2, 240/sq mi
- Population Growth Rate: 0.73% (2013)
- Population Birth Rate: 10.4/1000 (2013)
- Infant mortality rate: 3.37/1000 (2013)
- Density per sq mi: 231
- GDP (PPP): $1.414 trillion (2013)
- Per Capita GDP (PPP): $30,741 (2013)
- Distribution of GDP: Agriculture 40-45%, Tourism 5%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 24%, services 71.7% (2011).
/> - Exports: $309.6 billion (2011.)
- Imports: $364.9 billion (2011)
- Real growth rate: 0.4%.(2011)
- Inflation: 3.1%. (2011)
- Unemployment: 21.7%(2011)
- Labor force: 23.1 million(2011)
- Urban Population: 77%. (2010)
- Population below poverty line: 21.1% (2012)
- Labour force participation rate, 15-24, female (%): 40.80 (2011)
- Environmental Performance Index (EPI) Ranking (and score): 7 (79.79) (2014)
The Gross Development Product of a country measures its economic level, its stability and economic growth and status. Spain is considered one of the few countries with the largest economy by nominal GDP in the world. Spain’s purchasing power parity positions it at the top 20 worldwide. In the European Union, Spain has the fifth largest economy based on statistics GDP and is a keen importer and exporter within Europe and the world. Its GDP per Capita standing at $30,741 indicates a considerably high purchasing power of the citizens of Spain. The GDP (PPP) of Spain is at an approximate high of $1.414 trillion (The World Fact book – Spain, 2013). Spain is known as an economically viable and stable state capable of maintaining and sustaining its population economically. This is perhaps because of its robust industrial network which consists of textiles and apparel, metals manufactures, medical and pharmaceutical equipment, tourism, shipbuilding, chemicals and clay and refractory products. Spain is equally endowed with a massive extent of natural resources like arable land, minerals like mercury, coal, iron, uranium, copper, tungsten, lead, potash, pyrites, kaolin, lignite and gypsum among others. Apart from the mentioned industries and resources, Spain has a stabilized system of transport that is among the best in the world with electric trains and super highways. Electricity generation is subsidized between hydropower and geothermal generation, reinforced with renewable power generation mechanisms.
There was however a recession period for Spain during the 2000s that saw it is economic boom reversed and leaving almost quarter of its population as unemployed. During this economic downturn, there was a significant increase in its imports and reduction in its exports. It was however able to pick up from the recession ignited by a huge sector boom in its industrial services and tourism and as a result was able to achieve a trade surplus in early 2013. The population growth rate has also had a positive impact on its economy since it is a key determinant on the utilization of infrastructure and resources like hospitals, schools, transport, housing, electricity, food and water among others.
- Human Development Index (VHDI) Ranking and Value: 23/ 187 (.885) (2012).
- Gender Inequality Index (GII) Value: 23/ 186.
- Infant mortality rate: 3.37/1000; 2012)
- Life expectancy: 81.27;
- Literacy rate: 97.7% (2010)
- Languages: Castilian Spanish 74%; Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%
- Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%
The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is a rather new form of index measurement that was introduced to analyze the gender disparity across different countries. It was formally initiated in 2010 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). It is a form of composite measure that integrates the gender equality assessment of countries. It is classified under empowerment, reproductive health and the labour market participation and consequently states the level achievement of different countries based on its gender ratio participation. The GII index is an improvement of previous indexes like the GDI, (Gender Development Index) and the Gender Empowerment Index, (GEM) that were initial present from studies by the Human Development Report work.
Spain has been praised for a number of years for its emphasis and commitment to gender equality. This has partly been possible from its insistence on proper and reliable legislation that was introduced in 2004 and 2008. These were meant to uphold the principles of gender equality both in public and in the private life. As a result there was a great reduction in gender violence. Under the leadership of the Prime Minister Jose Zapatero in 2008, there was an unprecedented increase in females occupying government positions as the cabinet for instance was predominantly female. This act set new standards for the participation of women in politics as well as the mainstream economy. Although the increase in female numbers is yet to completely trickle down to the overall employment status in the country, significant milestones and steps have been achieved in the country. Currently there is still a huge salary pay gap between men and women as women are still struggling with the juggle between family responsibilities and work particularly due to the traditional stereotypes that are yet to be diluted by the growing numbers of economically viable women.
In education there has been a general increase in the number of women enrolling and graduating from universities with a value of 54.25% between 2005 and 2006. Women especially account for 80% of all students within universities but however only take up 15% in the engineering related specialties. The overall participation rates of Spanish women is at (51.9%) and has been on a gradual increase over the years although it is still below average when compared to the OECD average of (56%)
- Freedom House Rating 1.0 (2012).
- Corruption Perception Index (CPI) Score: 66.67 (2012)
- Press Freedom Index (Reporters Without Borders) Ranking (and index score): 36 (20,50)
- Shares in Parliament, female-male ratio: Ranking and Value 27 (.531) (2011)
- Women in Parliament in %: 36
- System Type: Parliamentary Democracy with a constitutional monarchy.
- Constitution: Published in 1978.
- Administration: Unitary
- Executive: At the national level, the executive power is exercised by the Government only with the King as the head of state. The Government is composed of the prime minister, also known as the "president of the Government", one deputy prime minister or more ("vice-presidents of the Government") and all other ministers. The collegiate body is composed of prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and all other ministers (Council of Ministers). The Government is responsible for both foreign and domestic policies, as well as the economics and defense policies.
The 12 ministries within the government are: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Employment and Social Security, Ministry of Development, Ministry of Education Ministry of Employment and Social Security, Ministry of Agriculture, Nutrition and Environment, Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health, Nutrition and Environment and Ministry of Economy.
The constitution of Spain is also established by the Council of State which a supreme advisory council to the government
- Legislature: The legislative power is consolidates in the Spanish Parliament. The Cortes Generales are essentially the supreme representatives of the Spanish citizens. This legislature is bicameral and is integrated by the Congress of Deputies. The General Courts are responsible for exercising the legislative power of the State, controlling government actions and approving the budget. Most of the legislative powers are vested in the lower chambers as in most parliamentary systems, therefore the Congress of the Deputies are in charge of key decisions. The Speaker of Congress, ("president of the Congress of Deputies") presides over joint-sessions of the Cortes Generales.
The Congress of Deputies composed of a minimum of 300 and a maximum of 400 deputies.
The upper chamber is basically the Senate and is of territorial representation. Four senators are elected for each province except for insular provinces where the number of senator varies. 3 senators are also elected for each of the three major islands.
- Judiciary: It is integrated by magistrates and judges responsible for administering justice in the King's name. It is composed of different courts with a dependence on what is to be judged and the jurisdictional order. The highest ranking court is the Supreme Court; it is superior in all issues except for constitutional guarantees. It is headed by a president who is nominated by the King and proposed by the General Council of the Judiciary. The General Council of the Judiciary governs the Judiciary and is integrated by the president of the Supreme Court, 20 members who are appointed by the King for 5 year terms. In this group are included 12 judges and magistrates from all judicial categories, 4 nominated members by the Congress of Deputies and 4 by the Senate. All are elected by three-fifths of their respective members. Election of candidates is from jurists and lawyers of acknowledged competence and with over 15 years of professional experience.
The Constitutional Court has complete jurisdiction over all Spain. It consists of 12 members all appointed by the King. 4 are proposed by three-fifths Congress of Deputies, 4 by three- fifths of the Senate, 2 by the executive and 2 by the General Council of the Judiciary. All candidates should be renowned prosecutors and magistrates, public officials, university professors, or lawyers and all of them jurists of recognized competence. All should equally have 15 years of professional experience.
The Press Freedom Index is the annual system of ranking of countries that are published and compiled by Reporters Without Borders. The Index is based upon assessments by the organization of all the press freedom records in previous years. The PFI reflects the extent and degree of freedom that journalists, new organizations and enjoy in different countries. The efforts of authorities in the country to ensure that this freedom is achieved are also measured. Reporters Without Borders only takes notes and ensures there is a careful analysis of the index dealing with press freedom. It does not measure the quality of journalism and human rights violation (Reporters Without Borders, 2013).
In Spain there is a general decline in the Index. Possible reasons for this decline include the continued and gradual increase in the sophistication independent journalism and all new media controlled by authoritarian regimes. Some of the other significant reasons are the domain effects of the European economic crisis and financial sustainability longer term challenges, the print media and the threats from non-state actors like radical organized crime groups and Islamists.
The ranking of most countries is however no longer attributable to dramatic political developments. The improved reflection is a clear indication of the positive intentions and attitudes of governments towards an improvement of the media freedom both in the medium or long term. Although there is a multi- criteria approach of analysis, ranging from violence towards journalists and legislation, it is observed that most democratic countries occupy the top indexes whereas the dictatorial countries the last three positions.
2014 Index of Economic Freedom. Spain. Retrieved from:
CEDAW, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Sixth periodic report of States parties: Spain. Retrieved from: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2006/02/feature/es0602106f.htm
OECD, Babies and Bosses: Key Outcomes of Spain compared to the OECD average.
Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/document
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Dashed hopes after spring. Retrieved from http://en.rsf.org/press-freedom-index-2013,1054.html
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