Fundamental ethical principles of nursing is respect for life, dignity and rights of the patient. The ethical responsibilities of nurses in the process of working with the patient is a certain set of actions to perform unconditional (for example, to respect the patient and his right to self-determination,the identification of their will to anything, to do no harm, to keep the word; to cooperate with patient).(Videbeck 2011)
Cooperation with the patient means working together to tackle problems with his health. In the relationships between healthcare professionals and patients, both sides should be partners, in order to achieve the best result possible, in this or that situation. In modern medicine, a reliable partner often determines the success of treatment, surgery, diagnostic or preventive procedures. Nurses are not only involved in the treatment, but also they are a very important part of it, without their help the proper work of any surgeon or therapist becomes almost impossible. The process of such a relationship forms a successful team , that is an association of people involved in a continuous combined work or activities.
Nurse must aspire to be professionally competent, independent specialists, qualified individuals who possess necessary psychological and personal characteristics, as well as good health. To carry out their professional duties, for medical personnel it is very important to maintain their physical and mental health, dynamic harmony of the individual with the environment, achieved through adaptation.(Fowler&Aroskar 2010)
Ethical principle of a nurse if to bring goodness to other people, it is an action aimed at benefiting a person or community as a whole, that is called a beneficence. This is not only about goodwill, unselfishness, generosity, but also about understanding of the other person, compassion for him, complicity in his life.
Ethical factor in medicine has traditionally been of great importance. More than eighty years ago, by analogy with the medical Hippocratic Oath there was established analog in nursing, called Florence Nightingale Oath.
Around such a complex and delicate topics in bioethics literature, there were two opposing points of view. The first point of view considers abortion to be purely personal, intimate problem that no one but the woman, does not apply to, which no one should interfere. In this case abortion can be determined to be just one of medical operations, and in each case all surgical problems are solved by the doctor and patient. Briefly expressing this point of view, we can say following: "Abortion is a medical problem." The second point of view is the opposite pole: abortion offends the moral sense, so here there is a moral and ethical issue, and besides this issue is very complicated. After all, before coming to the doctor, a woman decides moral issue of life or death according to her unborn child, and after she goes to a doctor, ethical sense of the problem does not disappear, but becomes even more complicated. Doctors and the nurses become involved in this problem even by helping women to obtain abortion by her own choice.
In recent decades, abortion has become one of the most intense and diverse problems discussed in moral theory. However, philosophical and scientific sophistication of this discussion, of course, does not mean that the problem of abortion becomes clearer. Specialists mark that defenders of abortion rights and their opponents do not agree with each other, even in terms of the dispute. Opponents argue that the problem here is following: should or should not embryos have the right not to be killed, like other human beings? Another side believes that the central question of whether one can force a woman to bear an unwanted fetus even at the cost of her own health and life?
This issue is central to bioethics as it relates to the whole set of other important issues. Is it possible to manipulate the fetus and what are the limits of these manipulations? Does woman need to have a child if it occurs, that this child will be doomed to endless suffering with an incurable disease, or if the child-result of violence? Does a woman have to give birth to a sick and weak child, if she can give birth to another healthy child? Can nurses and doctors use the embryo for researches? Whether it is possible to discard embryos and what are the criteria? From one point of view, if we are positive about the idea of genetic improvement of the human race, we have to allow abortion, and vice versa.
Historically, in the global culture emerged different moral and ethical principles, rules and recommendations, that time after time were replacing each other. Today medical ethics exists in four forms or models.
The first one is the model of Hippocrates. The basic principle of this model says "do no harm". Doctors and nurses should aim at gaining social trust of the patient. Healing principles laid down by Hippocrates the father of medicine lie at the origins of medical ethics and are reflected in the famous "Oath", which is relevant today.
The second one is the Model of Paracelsus the main point of which is «Doing good» principle, that developed in the Middle Ages. The main importance of this doctrine is emotional contact of doctor with a patient on the basis of which the entire healing process should happen.
Also, the deontological model or medical ethics, which appeared in 1840. The basic principle of which is «moral perfection» and «respect for duty.» It is based on the strictest
performance of a "code of honor" that is determined by Medical Society, as well as by doctor’s own intelligence and moral principles, for compulsory execution.
The last form is bioethics that is considered to be a modern form of the traditional biomedical ethics, the basic principle of which, is the principle of respect for human rights and dignity.
All in all, deciding whether it is allegeable to obtain abortion, nurses should always refer to the legislation, respecting the measures provided in the legal acts. All over the world there are also different nursing codes of ethics, that also must be followed and respected.
Medical ethical principles are aimed at protecting the rights and interests of the patient, and it would seem, they should be completely humane. However, in real life is not so simple. Doctors are often put in a situation where they have to make decisions contrary to the rules of medical ethics. In this case, the doctor tries to make a decision that will cause less harm.
Davis, A., Fowler, M., & Aroskar, M. (2010). Ethical dilemmas & nursing practice. Boston: Pearson.
Smith, M.(2012). The legal, professional, and ethical dimensions of education in nursing. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Videbeck, S. (2011). Psychiatric-mental health nursing. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.