It has come to our attention that Prisons overcrowding is a major problem facing many countries across the world. The situation, prisons overcrowding, continues to worsen as time passes by, hence calling for an immediate action by the government before the situation gets out of control. Through a literature review, is depicted that cells that were once meant for one offender at the present accommodate more than two offenders. Problems arise as a result of this issue (Prisons overcrowding) such as the outbreak of diseases, such as acute respiratory infections, meningitis, tuberculosis, or cholera.
Through a literature review, it is depicted that disease outbreaks becomes more frequent and severe when the population density is high. For example, tuberculosis rates can be 100 times higher in jail than in the civilian population (Wilson, 2010). Attempts made to try and solve this issue, prisons overcrowding, includes; the establishment of community Correction Program, the privatization of Prisons, and conversion of leisure facilities. Community Correction Program has proved to be the most effective model in reducing prisons overcrowding. The model, Community Correction Programs, educates citizens on how to live honestly, hence reducing the chances of misconduct within the society-solving the problem at hand (prisons overcrowding).
In this paperwork, I am going conduct an intensive research with reference to overcrowding problems in today’s prisons.
Prisons overcrowding has become a major problem for countries around the world. The problem, prisons overcrowding, has been depicted by researchers to worsen if nothing is done immediately, so as to help in healing the situation- prisons overcrowding. Through a literature review, it is alarming learning that cells that were initially built for one inmate, now often house two or three inmates. The situation, prisons overcrowding, is getting out of control, day in day out, calling for immediate government intervention. The United States judges are also worried about this issue, whereby, they ruled out that many prisons have become so overcrowded, hence violating prisoners’ constitutional safeguard from brutal and extraordinary reprimand. The problem of prisons overcrowding does not spare even the most powerful Nations of the world, for example the United Kingdom is depicted as having a more severe problem, whereby, it has resulted to the conversion of disused army barracks and police cells as prisons facility-prisoners being held in these places as a result of the rapid rise of offenders (Wilson, 2010).
According to the experts finding, the United States has been recognized to send to prison more citizens than other country in the world. The Pew Center on the States reported, in 2008, that an astonishing one in every 100 adults in the United States at the present lives behind bars. The situation, prisons overcrowding, has led to the Federal, State, and County prisons to experience near catastrophe levels of overcrowding. The Supreme Court acknowledged California Prison overcrowding unlawful and upheld an order by a 5-4 ballot that could oblige the transfer or discharge of more than 30,000 condemned offenders over the next two years. The move, by the Supreme Court, would help in lessening the problem of prison overcrowding; but it is more likely for the released offenders to engage into criminal activities, since they were not fully rehabilitated (Wilson, 2010). It is important to note that the operating budgets have been severely cut, hence worsening the issue at hand. It, therefore, becomes next to impossible for the maintenance of these facilities- prisons facilities. The fund that was meant to build new facilities has also been cut down, thereby, resulting to insufficient prisons facilities. The United States government has been allocating funds to other most vital sectors such as the healthcare sectors, due to lack of adequate funding ,as a result of the recent global economic recession that spared nil Nation.
The government has a role to play before things get out of control. The appropriate model must be employed by Nations so as to ease this problem- prisons overcrowding. It is a fact that prisons overcrowding particularly in the United States is considered as one of the main contributing factors to deprived jails circumstances around the globe.
The problem of prisons overcrowding is more likely to result to amplified prisoner misconduct, more rivalry for prison services, such as educational or vocational training programs and a lack of a meaningful work opportunities for prisoners during their incarcerations. The prisoners will be fighting for the limited resources that are offered in the prison facility, hence creating unhealthy relationship among the prisoners. The rivalry creates an excellent environment for the survival of violence among the prisoners.
It is also import to note that Prison overcrowding often results in decreased prisoners’ supervision, due to under staffing, less resources for inmates and inadequate living conditions. It, therefore, becomes difficult to uphold and strengthen both peace and order in these facilities. It is important to note that both the corrections officer and inmates are more susceptible as a result of the growing supervision responsibilities. Research has it that jails overcrowding and understaffing is a formula for disaster. The prisoners’ staffs are left in a dilemma, whereby, they have to provide space that is out of reach for accommodation purposes. Through a literature review, it is depicted that a high population has an unhelpful, enduring consequence on the mental states of prisoners. It has caused nerve- racking circumstances, thereby, prompting prison officials to respond inappropriately on incident.
Prisons overcrowding too results to the outbreak of diseases, such as acute respiratory infections, meningitis, tuberculosis, or cholera. Through a literature review, it is depicted that disease outbreaks becomes more frequent and severe when the population density is high. For example, tuberculosis rates can be 100 times higher in jail than in the civilian population. Waterborne diseases have been identified, by experts, as being the leading cause of death in these facilities, as a result of too many offenders congested in a small room. The staffs too are at risk of being infected, since they live in these facilities. It is, therefore, important to implement a perfect model that would help in solving this issue, prison overcrowding, before losing more lives as a result of waterborne diseases. Other fresh problems have erupted as a result of prisons overcrowding, such as lack of privacy that has been known to worsen mental health problems. The prisoners are expected by the circumstances, inadequate facilities, to share facilities, such as lavatories. In most cases, the lavatories may lack doors, thereby, increasing the rate of hostility among the prisoners (Berlatsy, 2010). It is also depicted that lack of privacy can lead to a sensitive level of tension in the prisons facilities. As tension grows, it establishes the occurrence of violence against staff and colleague convicts, hence resulting to an environment that is not safe for both the staffs and prisoners. It is argued that denying prisoners right to privacy can help in reducing suicide cases that have been rampant in prisons facilities, but it is important to note that the move, denying prisoners privacy, have more negative outcome as compared to its positive outcomes. David Maurer who happens to be the GAO’S Director of Homeland Security and Justice told The Huffington Post that cramming more and more citizens into a restricted room will result to the buildup of tensions and problems. Accumulation of tension can result to the prisoner becoming mentally unstable, hence impairing his or her judgment capability (Wilson, 2010).
Through a literature review, attempts have been adopted, so as to help in coming up with the best solution to resolving this issue- prisons overcrowding. The attempts includes, converting some of their recreation facilities, such as the gymnasium to accommodate prisoners, but these attempts only provides a temporarily solution to this issue-prisons overcrowding. It is important to note that converting the gymnasium into a sleeping area confines the prisoners’ rights to frivolous facilities, thereby, building more tension among the prisoners. The prisoners become unoccupied, as a result of converting their recreation facilities, hence resulting to severe issue, such as chaotic demonstrations within the facility (Wilson, 2010). The protest can end up worsening prisons facilities, as a result of the damages caused by the demonstrators. The condition, regular demonstrations, poses a greater complication in controlling overcrowded prisons. Some countries around the world have eliminated, completely, the places that were once destined for relaxation, enlightening, religious, and intellectual actions. It is important to note that these actions have been influenced by the demand of new accommodations facilities as the population of offenders increases holding all the other factors constant, hence the reason why prisons all over the world are converting building that were meant for other purpose into accommodation rooms for prisoners. According to Gov. Brown, he thinks that the dilemma could be lessened by privatizing prisons, so as new modern facilities can be constructed. The move, privatizing prisons, could have positive impacts if implemented, but the investors should not be driven by the objective of profiting their pockets, but instead, the awareness should change to a much more significant knowledge, such as to serve their rehabilitative function with a vision to plunging rates of re-offending in the midst of the offenders.
Community Correction Programs have also played a significant role in reducing crime rate; hence solving the problem of prison overcrowdings, since the number of offenders have reduced significantly. Under this model, Community Correction Program, through the help of the American Community Correction Institute has made it possible in reducing prisons overcrowding. The Community Correction Program has been publishing and distributing cognitive subsistence nimbleness workbooks for adults and adolescences in both groups. The model, Community Correction Programs, educates citizens on how to live honestly, hence reducing the chances of misconduct within the society-solving the problem at hand (prisons overcrowding). The model is easier to implement and has significant benefits to the community. It is important to note that building new prisons facilities without addressing the root cause of the problem will only have a short term effect. Solving the issue from its preliminary level will have a long long-lasting positive effect.
Engdahl, Sylvia. Prisons. Detroit, MI: Green haven,2010.Print.
Berlatsy, Noah. America’s Prisons: Opposing viewpoints. Detroit, MI: Green haven, 2010. Print
Wilson, Samuel. Psychiatry in Prisons a comprehensive handbook . London: Jessica Kingsley, 2010.Print.