Gender inequality is considered to being the unequal treatment based solely on gender. Since the 1970s and 1980s, women still face many organizational challenges to equality in the occupational place. The most publicly predestined example of gender inequality in the occupational place is the occurrence of occupational sexism, may it be a statement, or action or any discriminatory practice, based on a person’s sex that happen in the workplace. Societal prejudice and cultural beliefs are well known to be the major cause of gender inequality. (Pettit, 2009). The world of buying and selling particularly in the occupational place is a widespread home to gender inequality. So many issues regarding inequality between co-workers chiefly women exist in the occupational place. Women have been in the work force for very long. Things that generally lead to discrimination among women in the world of business usually include her aptitude to rise in the ranking scheme. Millions of companies globally have men as CEO’s or presidents. This is due to the fact that, there are imperceptible obstacles that hold back women's abilities to rise from its ranks.
Regardless of the prevailing sexual discriminations in the world of business, both women and men are seeing a lighter vision in gender inequality. Gender inequality in the occupational place can take place in many ways. It may arise during the hiring process. In this case men tend to be hired relatively than women with experiences and equal skills. It can be portrayed in an employment reimbursement such as the number of training or vacation a female or male worker receives. Due to an increased number of human rights, more people are being educated and enlightened about equity. Nevertheless, some cultural views concerning gender roles cannot be altered. Conversely, inequalities in the occupational place typically refer to institutional obstacles positioned in the way of the trained success for women.
There has been a struggle for equality throughout the history. This research analyzes the gender inequality in the occupational places. This study focuses on three main factors that affect women in the occupational places. That is leadership/power; discrimination and what can be done to bridge the gap between the gender inequalities. Numerous research shows that women work at low paying jobs mostly, and they are less likely to exercise authority in their jobs. There is, therefore, a big earning gap between men and women due to sex segregated characteristics at work related level.
Types of Gender Bias
Failure to ultimately offer equal pay for equal work is a form of discrimination; the use of separate criteria for endorsement is discriminatory as based on gender. Job offers and hiring based on gender or assumptions about gender or stereotypes are discriminatory, for instance, in careers such as nursing that are customarily related with one gender. Researchers suggest that discrimination against women based on pregnancy is not legal; therefore pregnancy and the issue regarding giving birth must also be treated the same way as any impermanent situation.
Harassment in the occupational place is a type of gender discrimination and takes many forms, such as sexual harassment and bullying and. Studies prove that this takes place in terms of suggestive photos, off-color jokes, and unsuitable physical contact and unwanted sexual approaches. Promises of promotion or other benefits made to an employee in the occupational place by an authoritative employer or manager in return for sexual favoritism is sexual harassment, as there is the aspect of intimidation of job loss if the favors are not settled.
One typical sign of occupational prejudice is sexual harassment the intimidation, bullying, teasing, or compulsion of a sexual nature, or inappropriate pledge of rewards in exchange for sexual favoritism. (Gregory,2003). Studies show that a Sexual harassment may be a fussy offer extended to an individual or the general environment prevailing within an occupational place. Studies explain that that occupational place is in contravention of employment law that interdict sexual harassment if an occupational place provides an environment that is hostile to women. Nevertheless, legally, sexual harassment can be intrigued by any person of either gender and be directed to another person of either gender.
Apart from sexual harassment, studies outline another instance of gender inequality in the workplace which is wage discrimination. Commonly referred to as the gender pay gap, many researches shows that women are over and over again paid less money for performing the same errands as men. Women are anticipated to earn approximately 76% of what men earn for the similar work they do. Part of the pay gap seems to be accredited to the fact that, more regularly than men, women tend to fit working in lower-paid industries or part-type work. Studies have given the explanation of the pay gap that lifts the concept of the pink-collar employee. A "pink-collar worker" is a term for allocating a certain jobs in the service business that are measured to be stereotypically female, such as being employed as a teacher, nurse, waitress, , or secretary. Studies show that the term tries to differentiate this type of work from white-collar work and blue-collar. Nevertheless, not even this acknowledgement give details the totality of the wage gap, for according to researchers, it is evident that even women who work full time in higher paid business earn less than their male colleagues
Women are known to being almost half of the world's population, yet they hold less than 25% of the world's parliamentary seats. Women are so despised in the power and leadership positions. Feminine characteristics are seen to be intrinsic to the female facility for childbirth and breastfeeding. They are believed to be dependency, weakness, availability for emotional or sexual services and thus have no voice to be eligible leaders. Some studies suggests that the only way to get rid of gender disparities is by ensuring that women have a voice at the table in the decision making process and when legislators are crafting policy
Reputed ideas of gender superiority in leadership qualities have been determined from many researches that have been carried out in the past, especially the ones involving frequently held societal beliefs. Despite this, this same gender bias in leadership qualities can be improved by certain workplace managerial climates. (Williams, 2010). The environment, in which business involving the hiring of future employees is carried out, can be significantly affected by the demands and efforts applied during that time. When put into a prejudiced setting, most businesses tend to prefer to hire males to females. But without prejudice, or nondiscriminatory setting, the results tend to prove to that the preference levels and numbers of males and females are almost equal. It, therefore, becomes evident that a crucial channel for biased thinking is in part caused by the societal climate that someone is in.
Leadership has been principally a male sanction in political, military, corporate, and other sectors of society. Even though women have achieved increased access to administrative and middle management positions, they still remain quite exceptional as influential leaders and top executives. Leadership and power are characters associated with the male sex commonly. Positions of authority and power are related to such generalizations. Women in leadership tend to lag behind since they do not have a female role model in a position of authority and power to emulate and admire. This lack of incentives results in a decrease in the probability of women to take on a headship role.
Most traits allied with leaders are masculine: authority, insolence, supremacy, and so forth. One of the most obstinate obstructions for women seeking situations of influence is the variance between the qualities that are traditionally linked with women and those customarily linked with leadership. The vast man model of leadership is with us still, and the idiom is rarely used generally. In latest years, the disjuncture between femaleness and leadership to some extent has narrowed. Women are arising more like men in their career ambitions and accomplishment, despite their fact that they are more willing to consider themselves having qualities and qualifications associated with authority, there is still gender disparity in areas of leadership people assign more power to men so that men are usually considered to be more significant than women. Some beliefs and customs despise women and do not permit them to be leaders.
Lack of awareness affects aspects of occupational labor in the occupational place. In the past, the behaviors recognized as the indicator of a triumphant leader by the people included those that are seen as feminine. (Trauth,2006). Leaders must be behaviorally neutral and genderless; leaders must have the flexibility to demonstrate both female and male characteristics. Therefore, effective and efficient leaders are those that can settle a range of demands. Societal gender bias in most studies implicates that female characteristics are less desirable and even weaker.
Many studies support the idea of inequality especially the ideas relating to the similarity between managers and women. Men tend to have a tendency to recognize successful middle managers as having those temperaments, attitudes, and characteristics, more regularly attributed to men in general than to women in general. In other words, what was approved as managerial characteristics in the past has not changed and still there is this perception. The change comes in on how women perceive themselves in a managerial position. Behaviors may have changed, but miserably male managers still hold onto their initial attitudes which engage a twisted sense of what the appropriate qualifications may be. Studies have shown that the private sector gets a pretty tough time when it comes to women in authority or power. There lack enough women on boards, chief executives and senior managers beyond the marketing departments and human resources.
Gender inequality leads to backwardness of a society with conventional analysis. Researchers have outlined Sociological perspective that suggests diverse measures to address the structural and cultural factors that assist lessen gender inequality. (Flavia 2000). Reduced socialization mostly by parents and other adult girls and boys into the traditional gender roles
Increase financial support of rape disaster centers and other services for women and girls who are victims of rape and who are sexually abused, Increase mentorship from the women who appear to be role models and other efforts to increase the number of women in customarily male profession and in positions of being political leaders, Employ popular and news media to confront gender stereotyping, enhance government funding of the best quality s well as day care options to facilitate parents, particularly mothers, to work outside their home confidently without fearing that their children’s well-being or their finances will be interfered with, Increase public awareness and realization of the grounds for, consequences of rape, and sexual assault, pornography, and sexual harassment, facilitate enforcement of the existing laws against sexual harassment and against gender based employment discrimination, Social integration, rising women employment opportunities, Involving women in active politics and social activities, Arranging social protection programs, social welfare developments by politicians and Promoting NGOs to eradicate Gender Inequality as well as offering high level education with the aim of engendering awareness among parents and also giving scholarships to girls to further their studies
Women should not be tied to the domestic chores, nurturing and child birth obligations in the society. Customs and traditions that restrict women from working should be reviewed so as to advances chances of women positions in the occupational places and leadership. Regardless of efforts it is clear that subtle biases of gender still contribute to discriminate against women in the occupational place especially in male dominated labor force. Existential biases affect the dominance of women in job performance; male dominated careers and leadership. It is, therefore, crucial to employ measures that will help us understand the underlying biases and factors in the occupational places that restrict a woman from attaining a state of equality among gentlemen in the occupational place so as to give women an opportunity to move up the ladder and boost the economy of a society without prejudice.
There is no need to keep buying the myth about gender equality. It is not yet a reality. Unless both women and men see and suggest gender inequality is unacceptable, things will not transform. It should be men’s obligation too to have to stipulate that their daughters, mothers, wives, and sisters earn more proportionate with their qualifications and not their gender. Equality will be attained only when both men and women are given equal respect, responsibilities, pay and equal job opportunities. We are equally important and humanity involves both men and women, and need one another. Thus, women should not be viewed as inferiors. There is therefore the need to teach our girls that they can attain as high as by any means possible. The issue of men dominating every sector is seen as old fashioned attitudes which are drilled into us from the very beginning. There is need to also teach our boys the regulations of respect and equality so that as they grow up, the issue of gender equality becomes a natural way of life. Women are more than fifty percent of the world population and more than fifty percent of voters. Through mobilization, there is need to help women have self realization and act as well as raising their voices so as to be accorded their rights. There are many job opportunities and work to do, and we can only get there if we work together.
Flavia, . (2000). Law and gender inequality: The politics of women's rights in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Gregory, R. F. (2003). Women and workplace discrimination: Overcoming barriers to gender equality. New Brunswick, NJ [u.a.: Rutgers Univ. Press.
Pettit, B., & Hook, J. L. (2009). Gendered tradeoffs: Family, social policy, and economic inequality in twenty-one countries. New York, N.Y: Russell Sage Foundation.
Trauth, E. M. (2006). Encyclopedia of gender and information technology. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Reference.
Williams, C. L., & Dellinger, K. (2010). Gender and sexuality in the workplace. Bingley: Emerald.