- Neo mercantilism;
This is a policy that regulates trade by achieving a balance of export over imports. It aims at encouraging exports, discouraging importing and also by controlling the capital movement thus promoting industrial growth. It also helped to increase the level of foreign reserves held by the government.
This comes from the word collaboration which means working together for a common goal. A collaborator is an associate in an activity or sphere of common interest. Collaboration in a work related increases the potential for high performance.
- Treaty of Gori;
This treaty was made between Ahmadu and the French in 1887. Ahmadu agreed to place his empire under the nominal protection of the French and the French then pledged not to invade his territory and remove the purchase of arms ban by Ahmadu. The treaty did not last long as the French made another treaty with Samori in 1888.
- Samori Toure;
Samori Toure was born in 1830 in Guinea. He was a founder of an empire in West Africa that resisted the French colonial rule from 1882 until he was captured in 1898. He made a treaty with the French in 1886 but after several fights, he was captured and died in 1900.
- Cecil Rhodes;
Cecil Rhodes was born in 1853 in England. He later came to South Africa and founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia, was known for mining (monopolized diamond mining in South Africa) and was a leading figure in politics. He then aimed at expanding the British Empire trough treaties, concessions and charters. He later died of illness in 1902.
- Natives land Act;
This was an Act enacted in 1913 aiming at regulating the acquisition of land by natives. This Act deprived the South Africa’s inhabitants the right to own land. This Act was in force for forty years until opposition through John Dube with others aiming to overturn the law once it came into force.
- John Tengo Jabavu;
John Tengo was born in 1859 in South Africa. He was a political activist and an editor in South Africa. He played an important part in the inauguration of the South African Native College and for wanting women to receive equal education to men. He later died in 1921.
- John Chilembwe;
John Chilembwe was born in 1871 in Malawi. He was a Baptist pastor and an educator who trained as a minister in the United States. Known for organizing an unsuccessful uprising against the colonial rule, he is celebrated as a hero for independence in Malawi. He was captured and killed by the Europeans in 1915.
Scramble for Africa was the invasion, colonization, occupation of the African territory by the European powers. Due to the invasion by the Europeans, they brought Christianity which seems plausible since it brought faith and hope and brought unity and peace amongst Africans. It also led to missionaries into Africa who helped in advocating for human rights. They also brought about the development of Africa in terms of economic growth, mode of dressing, railway as a mode of transportation and education.
Through Christianity, missionaries came and despite spreading Christianity, they helped in the stoppage of slave trade together with the rivalry amongst the Britain, Germany, France and other European powers. Also groups of humanitarian who came to Africa argued that slavery and slave trade undermined the man’s dignity.
There were three stages of partition of Africa. First was setting of boundaries. This happened in the early stages where the Europeans were laying claim to coastal regions and navigable rivers. As a result of this and due to the fact that the Europeans were using negotiations rather than conquering, the response from the Africans was also friendly and only a few Africans were hostile. Second was need for raw materials. Due to the industrial revolution in Europe, their industries needed raw materials and this led to scramble in areas like South Africa, Zimbabwe which were rich in minerals. This led to opposition from the Africans which brought about hostile wars. It also led to establishment of Union of South Africa whereby Africans were advocating for equal rights. Lastly was to control of areas of investments. This quest for control brought about rivalry amongst Britain, France, and European powers and this was the result of World War I.
White unification in South Africa involved the discovery of gold and diamond. It altered the economic and political structure in South Africa as it created divisions between the British and the Boers. The rivalry amongst the British, Boers and the Africans was resolved when the union of South Africa was established in 1910 which led to restrictions on political and property rights to whites at the expense of the blacks.
The effects of the union of South Africa on nonwhites was not taken well by the whites and thus it led to Africans being kept off electoral rolls thus prohibiting them from changing the laws that excluded them from political processes. The whites were allowed to hold skilled jobs in the mining industry and blacks would be the lowest paid as advocated by Cecil Rhodes. Also the blacks were to seek jobs from white employers.