The tone of the Shaffer and Burke articles is didactic. Shaffer is trying to educate the reader about the meaning of Southernization. Accordingly, Burke is informing the reader about the impact that technology will have on the values and beliefs by which people live. The two authors present a first person point of view. They participate in the action throughout the narration. This means that whatever the writers are presenting may not be objectively true.
Conversely, Strayer uses a matter-of-fact tone. This is apparent because Strayer does not use fanciful or emotional words or phrases. Consequently, Strayer’s presents an objective point of view. He states tells past happenings without adding more information that can be inferred from the article. Strayer remains a detached observer.
Strayer defines ‘westernization’ as the cause of the emergence of scientific revolution. He makes reference to the altered ideas that question the place of humans and the religious authority. According to Strayer, this aspect is brought about due to the presence of superior education. as such, he portrays ‘westernization’ as a form of liberalized innovative ideologies that are advanced by the well-educated.
Strayer’s describes the interaction of the Islamic and Chinese innovations with those of Western Europe in terms of the level of knowledge. For instance, he perceives Western Europe as having been in a position to draw extensive knowledge from the Islamic culture. Accordingly, Burke presents Islamic knowledge as the foundation for the gothic architecture. Shaffer also observes that various processes developed from southern Asia before spreading to Western Europe.
A good example of the Islamic influence to the Western Europe is Nicolaus Copernicus reference to the mathematical formulations that Maragha, in the present Iran, had undertaken many years earlier.
The 2012 tertiary overview is more ‘readable’ than Burke because it analyses various concepts and views thereby presenting a more objective view. The overview is also readable due to its objective point of view. This point of view does not disclose much about what the author thinks or feels hence making it more believable than the first person point of view that Burke uses to convey information.
Burke, James. The day the Universe Changed. London: London Writers Ltd., 1995.