Christianity differed in the West and East based on the way in which the Christians handled matters pertaining to their religious beliefs. Western Christianity comprises Roman Catholicism while Eastern Christianity involves the Greek Orthodox church. The institution of the pope differs between the Western and the Eastern Christianity. According to the Roman Catholics, the pope heads the church and is an infallible individual. The Greek Orthodox church does not recognize the institution of the pope but has the highest bishop. Catholics do not allow the church leaders to marry unlike the Greeks who allow the elders to get married. Christianity played a role in creating political tensions in Byzantium since the two factions of the church strived to get more converts in order to accept their way of living and establish cultural and political alliances.
The political tensions grew as Constantinople and Rome struggled for religious and political authority. Religion had a strong influence on Byzantine society because it was closely tied to the government, and that means the church influenced various decision makings(Conrad and Demarest,451). Trans Saharan trade was important to the development of Africa as it led to the growth of urban centers and economic development.Economic development occurred as the traders sold and bought goods. Commercial links were also created between the different countries in Africa. Berbers gained dominance over the trade routes as they acted as guides during the trade. The Berbers also controlled salt mines in West Africa, that were in high demand during the trade. The trade led to urbanization as people settled along the major gold producing areas and the trade routes. Islam became the dominant religion during the trade as it was started by Islamic preachers who were also the merchants. The preachers continued with the spread of Islam during the trade. The Turks rose to power in Inner Asia after their migration to the region that was influenced by many factors including climatic change.
They then organized themselves into tribal bands that they used to defend their kinsmen and eventually rose to power. The division between Eastern and Western Turks was fuelled by differences between the Catholic and the Orthodox churches on the issues pertaining to the emperor and the patriarchs. The Turks eventually gained the upper hand over the Abbasid Caliphate because they had a strong military that was well trained and equipped. The Turks came to dominate a large area because of their administrative skills and their strong military personnel that conquered most of their enemies(Conrad and Demarest,453). The medieval guilds were important to the city as they contributed in their development. They formulated a mechanism of protecting the privileges and the rights of the members. The merchant guilds strived at forming of civic organizations while those involved in the craft industry increased their specialization. The guilds also ensured that what they made was upto standard. The structure of the guild was later incorporated to meet the growing demand for higher education especially through the use of apprenticeship. Apprentices comprised of individuals up to the age of 12 years. They were then taught after which they became journeymen. The need to teach more people increased the demand and popularity of the universities(Conrad and Demarest,454). More people also needed to learn thus increasing the demand and growth of universities.
G. W. Conrad and A. A. Demarest, Religion and Empire: The Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansionism (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 67–69.Print.
McKay, John P. Western Society: A Brief History. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print.