1b.The general characteristics in the three categories are quality control, codes of conduct and eco-labelling and certification awards.
Quality control. These quality control mechanisms coupled with a continuum ranging from those that are external and compulsory to those that are internal and voluntary ensure a sustainable tourism environment. Mandatory laws and external enforcement may be of great use to ensure a sustainable tourism environment but the face great challenges. This is because external enforcement are hardly disseminated as part of a formal and integrated program aimed at achieving sustainable outcomes in tourism, in collaboration with stakeholders in tourism groups. They are viewed to be inadequate in nature.
Quality control can be well viewed in weight one. This is this is well factored in through formulation of policies in hotel facilities, policies on consumption of water and energy, supplies consumption, management of solid wastes policies and training of employees on various policies.
Codes of conduct. They can also be referred to as codes of ethics. This is a set of guidelines aimed at influencing behavior and attitudes of those who abide by them. For participants in the tourism sector, they encourage conservation of the natural environment, biodiversity and ecosystem, maintenance of environmental systems and respect and support to local traditions, cultures and communities. They also play a huge role in encouraging commitments to environments and culture, conservation of energy, control of pollution, educate on local cultures and environments and encourage cooperation to sustain cultures and environments.
Codes of conduct are well articulated on weight two. Formulation of policies on codes of conduct are well laid out. Codes of conduct about consumption of water, energy, general supplies and management of wastes in the hotel are well stipulated. Employees are also well acquainted to the codes of conduct through appropriate training of how they are expected to carry themselves while they carry out their duties.
Eco-labelling and certification awards. Eco-labels are methods used to standardize promotion of environmental claims by conforming to the criteria, verified by third parties. They help in improving on the codes of conduct and awards by availing information indicating that operation and management of eco-labeled products comply with principles of environmentally sustainable tourism. This is achieved through effective certification and accreditation.
This is well articulated in the third weight. Eco-labelling on water and energy consumption are well put into consideration. Management of solid wastes and general supplies consumption has been brought to the attention well by the hotel.
1c.The distinctions in quality control, codes of conduct and eco-labelling and certification awards are relevant to the concepts of minimalist and comprehensive sustainable tourism. In minimalist sustainable tourism, environmental impacts on consumption of water and water are well looked at. Management of waste and energy consumption has also been reviewed periodically. Direct impacts on training of employees and consumption policies incorporating environmental and social aspects can well be attributed. There is also close monitoring on water leakages and specific energy saving goals. The quality of drinking water is also looked at after a short period of time (2 months)
Comprehensive sustainable tourism has also been put into consideration in Costa Rica substantially. Hotels have established sustainability mission and policies and employees know of sustainability mission and policies. Participation in recycling programs and long term energy saving technologies have been largely looked at. The hotel program of preventive maintenance for all electric installation and equipment is meant to enhance sustainability in the long run.
My recommendations for more effective basis for evaluating the sustainability of the accommodation sector include:
Bricker, K. S., Black, R., & Cottrell, S. (2013). Sustainable tourism & the millennium development goals: Effecting positive change. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Herremans, I(2006). Cases in Sustainable Tourism: An Experiential Approach to Making Decisions, Hospitality, tourism, and foodservice, Hospitality, travel and tourism. New York. Routledge.