Socrates, who was an Athenian resident, lived his whole life engaging people into philosophical talks as well as discussions. He had some students or scholars who included Plato, Xenophon and Aristophanes. These scholars wrote several pieces of writings, which indicated Socrates discussions. Aristophanes comedy clouds and Xenophon’s apology of Socrates where considered as some of the best discussions Socrates taught and argued as well. Tragedy simply refers to the form of drama, which is usually based on human or people’s sufferings, hence it normally invokes heavily on the audience (Bell 245). Aristophanes was among the scholars who argued against Socrates and termed his teachings as meaningless and it did not have any foundation. Aristophanes goes further to specify that he is not like those speakers who keep on looking for mistakes in Socrates work in order to critique the entire discussion. He claims that Socrates work does not have desires as well as energies to reconstitute to an original and mythical wholeness, which appeared half.
Aristophanes explain further by unveiling how Socrates work rely on a mix of gender of an original four-legged living thing , which aims at expressing three distinct or different possibilities of a union among man and woman, woman and woman, and man and man. This implies that the missing halves represent a metaphor for the unity of both tragedy and comedy, which Socrates is mainly advocating for throughout his discussions and arguments. In Aristophanes’ comedy known as The Cloud tends to contradict on what Plato and Xenophon put forth concerning Socrates as he claims that their own ideas were based on fictions. Socrates in his discussions mentioned Aristophanes’ comic as the major cause of all misconceptions. Aristophanes in his The Cloud comic argument, he claims that Socrates method of questioning was very unreasonable, which makes it difficult for audience to persuade his arguments effectively. The story is revolving around an old man known as Strepsiades, who is very desperate to stop his son’s gambling habit hence enrolls him in Socrates school of thoughts. Even though Strepsiades is determined to educate his son, Aristophanes despises Socrates school since the young man learns on how to beat his own father. This implies that Aristophanes sees this act as immorally and discards it even though Socrates justifies the action.
On the other hand, Xenophon’s Apology of Socrates may reflect to the same knowledge put forth in Plato’s own Apology as well as his early dialogues and discussions. Xenophon introduces the Memorabilia, which began about ten years after Socrates death. Xenophon main aim introducing of Memorabilia was to defend Socrates’ reputation from those people who were concentrated in ruining it. Xenophon reminds people that Socrates never called or introduced him as a teacher of aret as well as he never paid attention to issues the concerning philosophical principle. Socrates used to accept young men who left their fathers as pupils or followers. He further taught them all the virtues that allowed and enabled them behave just like their teacher. Xenophon explains Socrates his lofty habit, which seems to be lunatic. Socrates method of cross-examining those people claiming to have a reputation of wisdom concerning human affair is achieved through employing dialectical argument. Xenophon portrays Socrates as an individual with a different significance, but also argues that he was somehow playful and ironical especially in the symposium (Socrates 287).
Xenophon represents Socrates as an individual with a strong attraction towards good looking men, who seem to be approaching the middle as well as late teen’s age. He goes further to display his unusual erotic temperament and also constantly in love. However, he explain his erotic attachment as the desires to transform these young men into bright and intelligent scholars through enabling them to strengthen their virtues on how to live best like normal human beings (Socrates 287). In Xenophon’s argument, he explains that Socrates meaning of his love as the love he has for his pupils’ souls and not their physical bodies. Socrates is a man of integrity, who despises people having sexual relations with young men. Xenophon mainly emphasizes on the fact that Socrates’ freedom and liberty for a strong drink, food, sex and physical comfort that tend to dominate other individuals. He unveil that Socrates used to walk barefooted even during the winter season as well as dressing in simple cloaks.
Bell, Linda A. Beyond the Margins: Reflections of a Feminist Philosopher. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003. Print.
Socrates, a Life Examined. Amherst, N.Y: Prometheus Books, 2007. Print.