Arab spring is the series of mass street protests, revolutions and internal armed conflicts in several Arab countries, which began in late 2010 in Tunisia and continuing in some countries today. The impetus for the beginning of the protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian street fruit seller Mohamed Bouazizi on 18 December 2010. His self-immolation was the protest against the tyranny of the police, who confiscated his goods. Consequently, in Tunisia began mass protests that led to the resignation of the president of Ben Ali on 14 January 2011. The success of the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia gave impetus to similar protests in other Arab countries that had the same problems. Let’s analyze what were main causes of this protests and revolutions.
Under the influence of the financial crisis of 2008, in Arabic countries began to increase prices on food, as well as the oil prices have fallen. Thus, in the poor population of Arab countries couldn’t long sustain themselves with expensive food, while governments saving in the social sector led to the rapid impoverishment of a population. Unemployment in Arab countries grew significantly. The huge gap between rich and poor in conjunction with the growing protests caused the socialist revolutions in some countries. However, the financial crisis wasn’t the only reason of riots. In Arabic Middle East countries, all government and bureaucracy were corrupted. People in countries such as Egypt and Tunisia, which are touristic countries, have lived poorer than Israel or even Turkey. Their governments and especially their presidents, who have ruled their countries for decades, just robbed their countries. In others, the influence of totalitarianism and corruption caused the riots and even civil war. One of the reasons of the success of Arab spring was lack of support for the regime by the army. For example, In Egypt Armed Forces even takes control over the state. The exception was Iran, which replaced the Islamist government came more radical-minded government. Some political analysts believe that the revolution and the protests were caused by the superpowers, but there are no any direct evidences for this point of view.
As for the consequences, they can be divided into three parts. First is the growth of instability in the Middle East. In an already troubled region continue and in Syria continues civil war. One more consequence is the fall of autocratic regimes, for example in Egypt. The third consequence is that the radical Islamic parties, such as Muslim Brotherhood involved more actively in the politics of the countries.
Nowadays, oil is one of the basic resources. This resource has the significant role in national interests and national security of great countries. It’s impossible to imagine that countries like UK and US don’t understand that because without oil almost all military vehicles are useful. In last decades, US foreign policy was directed into Middle East where located the biggest oilfields in the world. Some people say that there is no connection between US influence on Middle East and oil, but I don’t agree with them.
One of the examples of US policy connected to oil is Iraq invasion in 2003. It must be mentioned that Iraq was for the decades under the autocratic rule of Saddam Hussein. However, Iraq isn’t simple Arab country-it’s has fifth-largest oil reserves in the world. There are several evidences that Iraq campaign wasn’t only a war against Saddam Hussein and his totalitarian regime. One of the reasons of the Iraq invasion was called disarming Iraq from the nuclear weapon. However, nowadays we know that Hussein hadn’t any nuclear weapon. One more reason of Iraq campaign was Hussein’s support of Al-Qaeda in attack on 11 December 2011, but there are evidences that Bush’s administration decided attack on the Iraq six months before 9/11 attack. In the report, which called “Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For the 21st Century” concludes that Iraq has destabilizing influence to the oil market and because of this US military campaign is necessary.
One more reason to doubt in official reasons of Iraq campaign is that both President George W. Bush and Vice-President Dick Chaney have background in an oil business. They were CEO’s in several oil companies. Another evidence for oil as the factor of Iraq war was is that in 2001-2002 Saddam Hussein wanted to sell his oil barrels only in Euro. There are several articles in newspapers about Saddam efforts to trade on the oil market only in European currency. It could negatively affect on dollar exchange rate.
In conclusion, I want to add that in Iraq campaign were also interested other Middle East countries, especially OPEC countries. They removed from the oil markets their competitor and the regional leader. After Iraq invasion, we can also mention the Arab spring. On December 2010, in several Arab countries began revolutions. The consequences of these revolutions could also be profitable for United States allies in the Middle East. The instability in Libya end Egypt also helped to remove these countries from oil markets. With the growth of influence like Saudi Arabia or Kuwait, who are US allies, US influence on the world has increased significantly. US with the help of their allies can impact on the countries without the invasion- they can easily impact on the economy of the rival country with sanctions.
Since the creation of the state of Israel, Israel have been involved in several wars and conflicts, such as 1948 Palestine War, Six-Day War, Yom Kippur War ant others. Why Palestinians and other Arabs hate Israel? Why conflicts in these wonderful places continue for more than sixty years? Let us try to find out.
Although the State of Israel was created only in 1948, the history of the conflict covers nearly a century since the end of the XIX century, when was created the political Zionist movement, marked the beginning of the struggle of the Jews for their own state. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, as a result, of its defeat in the First World War conflict between Zionist Jews and the Arab population of Palestine was limited mainly to the territorial claims of both sides of the British Mandate of Palestine. During the tension in the situation in the second quarter of the XX century geopolitical component added to the religious and cultural, reinforcing ethnic conflict.
In 1948, the neighboring Arab countries declared war on the newly established Jewish state. Thus, the conflict has gone beyond Palestine and turned into a conflict between Israel and all the other Arab states in the region. However, despite the exceeding number of the enemies Israel not only survived, but also increased its territory. With the involving all other Arab countries into the conflict and support of terroristic organizations such as Hezbollah and Hamas by the Iran, Israel-Palestinian conflict became interesting to superpowers. During the 1960-1970s Soviet Union supported Arab countries to increase their influence in the Middle East. United States have always supported Israel in all conflicts, so Israel became the outpost of the United States in the region. Thus, Israel’s and Palestinian’s leader couldn’t end conflict if they even wanted. The conflict doesn’t depend only on them. The conflict depends on the radical Islamists from all over Arab countries. It also depends on Iran, who wants to be the regional leader on the Middle East and victory in Israel could help them to improve their position and to increase their influence.
In my opinion, United Nations can’t end this conflict with the help of peacekeepers. UN have resolved conflicts only with developing countries, but here, as I have mentioned above, situation complicated by the participation in conflict of other countries. Also, the situation is complicated because of small Israel’s territory. If Israel gave to the independent state of Palestine part of their territory, it would be much harder them to defend their territory, Thus, in my opinion, Palestine National Authority will never get independence from Israel in peace way.
U.S. and Iran (then called Persia) established diplomatic relations in 1883. In 1906 in Iran after the revolution formed a constitutional monarchy, and in 1953, there was a coup against the democratically elected Prime Minister (the coup was organized and financed by the U.S. and Britain). In 1978, Iran's Islamic revolution, the Shah of Iran Mohamed Reza Pahlavi was forced into exile. After the Islamic revolution Iran became the Islamic Republic, in which theocrats have a great impact on both foreign and domestic policies. The United States broke diplomatic relations with Iran in 1980 after the capture of the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. Currently, the U.S. government does not have diplomatic or consular relations with Iran.
The United States has long-standing concerns about the Iranian nuclear program, Iran's support for terrorism and violation of human rights of this country. Numerous sanctions were imposed on Iran by the United States and the international community to force Iran to engage seriously in negotiations with the international community and begin to solve the problems associated with its nuclear program. Also, in recent years, Tehran began to modernize their army. Iran still does not recognize Israel's right to exist and prevents the Middle East conflict by supplying weapons to groups like Hamas, Hezbollah and Palestinian Islamic Jihad. The Iranian support of terroristic organizations and their position against the Israel and Iran nuclear program are two main disagreements between countries. The Iran’s position against Israel and United States also has historical origins. The majority of the population of Iran are Persians, so the present Islamic Republic of Iran is successor of history of great Parthia and Achaemenid Empires. So the will to be a regional leader in their blood.
Especially relations deteriorated during the reign of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. After coming to power, Ahmadinejad strengthens Iranian-Israeli policy, which began after the Islamic Revolution. In his public speeches and interviews, he said that Israel must be wiped off the face of the earth. Also, he accused that United States government organized the 9/11 attacks. There were even claims that he was one of the participators of capture of the US Embassy in Tehran. During his Presidency, he especially developed the Iranian nuclear program. During his reign, the United States increased sanctions against the Iran that affected negatively on its economy.
However, official Tehran always insisted that Iran has right for peaceful nuclear program. After Hassan Rouhani came to power the relations between two countries has improved. Hassan Rouhani showed willingness to discuss the most difficult issues with the West, and held a series of events in domestic policy in the country: political prisoners were released, open for some time access to social networks etc. In September 2013 the first time in 34 years a telephone conversation between the leaders of the two powers.
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