- Modernization theory is a sociological phenomenon that focuses on the evolution of the society from traditional practices to modern. The study of modernization theory dates back to the 17th century where it focused on the progression of the world driven by technology. Coined by sociologists, the theory entails many disciplines especially in regards to technology. For instance, the theory discusses the advancement of the mass media/communication sector in relation to the societal changes in culture, politics and economy. Furthermore, the theory enlightens the society on the emergence of advanced technology and communication systems that have reduced the world to global village. The fast discoveries and changes in communication and information technology systems have hastened the connection of people from different countries.
- The dependent theory expresses the relationship or dependency between international countries and individual countries that has created inequality. External factors like political temperature and socio-economic practices interact to create dynamic relationships. According to Economists, since colonial era, there has been movement of resources from underdeveloped/developing states to developed countries. In the 1950s, the western countries colonized African states and used the blacks as slaves. They enslaved Africans to provide labor on their farms without pay. Currently the white investors export raw materials from Africa to their countries cheaply for processing. Eventually, the Africans are unable to afford the processed products.
- Grand exchange is a trading system whereby members and free players sell or buy their items. While the members readily have six slots while the free players only get two slots. However, none of these traders has the control of market. Interestingly, is that there are no advertisements/ meetings discussion prior to the trade. Currently, this exchange system is common in the developed countries. Traders prefer this method because it consumes less of their time and the profit is better when compared to other methods.
- The Seven Years war lasted from 1756 to 1763. The war commenced due to constant conflicts between England and France. The two countries fought over various colonies in Africa and Northern America. The main perpetrators were European powers. The French, Swedish, Austrians and Russians converged against the Britons and Prussia. The former group was together in order to reinforce their security and efforts. While the Austrians fought to regain control of Silesia, Great Britain and France wanted to control North America. In 1760, Prussia under Frederick and Austria faced each at other Silesia and the latter lost. However, with dwindling military power, in 1761 Frederick made peace with Tsar Peter III of Russia, who assisted him in defeating Austrians. The Hubertusburg and fraco-British treaties of 1763 led to peace thus maintaining sovereignty of Prussia and other countries.
- Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle
Signed in 1668, this is a peaceful treaty between Spanish and France. Chaired by England, Dutch and the Swedish, France had no option but to respect the Spanish Netherlands as a sovereign state. According to the treaty, Spain retained its cities, which included Aire and Cambrai while France retained those in Flanders.
- Abolitionist Movement originated from the black community. The movement occurred in Europe and America forcing the whites to stop the enslavement of Africans. Africans provided cheap labor on farms, industries enduring hardships in Europe. The resistance against the whites led to the death of many Africans in Europe. Pressure from the Christian communities (Quakers), humanitarian and antislavery groups ended slavery. The revolutions in France and America declared equality in the human race. Consequently, Spain was the first nation to abolish slave trade. However, the colonizers of African nations continued with the inhumane activity until in the mid 19th century. Britain, America and France abolished slave trade between 1833 and 1865 while Mauritius ended slavery in 1981
- English merchants lead by Sir Thomas Roe established the East India Company for trade in West and North Indies. Trading in raw materials like the silk and cotton, the company ended up settling in India. It established an army and took control of major cities like Calcutta, Surat and Madras. Similarly, the company established a good relationship with the emperor who eventually exempted them from taxation in Bengal, 1717. When the company was on the verge of collapse, the British government salvaged it through the signing of an Act in 1773. The British government took over the control of the company putting it under the general leadership of Warren Hastings. More over, the British set to colonize India through the company. The oppression of the natives, strict policies and a revolution, which occurred between 1857 and 1858 led to the failure or closure of the company.
- Engelbert Kaempfer
Born in 1651, Engelbert Kaempfer was a German medical doctor who specialized in collecting information regarding plants and trade among others. During his tour of Asia and more so Japan where he eventually settled, he published a book in the botanical field called Amoenitatum Exticaum in 1712 and History of Japan 1727. In japan he worked for the Dutch East India Company. During his lifetime, he versed himself with different linguistics of Japan, Sweden and Prussia putting his major focus on their botanical world. Engelbert Kaempfer passed on in 1716 after attaining his doctorate degree in the medical field.
- Jonathan Swift
Originating from Anglo-Irish, Jonathan Swift was born in 1667. He specialized in writing essays and poems thus, contributing largely to the literary world. Swift also worked as a political pamphleteer, however, his major contribution to literature was through satire. Focusing on the politician his poems called for truth, humanity and fair politics. One of his major books is Gulliver travels, which was published in1728.
Question two: The Impact of global economy on
Countries under the emerging markets include Turkey, China, India, Indonesia and Brazil among others. Apart from the continuous political instability in Africa, emerging global markets have had a positive impact on the economic growth of the continent. China is one of the emerging countries that have heavily invested in African countries like Kenya, Ethiopia and Chile. Africa is the destiny/provides a large market for the consumables from the emerging countries. Africa as a region has recorded a growth of 5.1% in 2012; however, economists project the growth to increase to more than 5.5% by 2014. Economists attribute the slow growth of Africa to the financial crisis experienced in 2008 and the corruption levels, which lead to inflation in the region. The emerging global economies have greatly reduced poverty levels in Africa.
China is one of the emerging economies in Asia. Through their industries, China is producing cheap consumable products that every market especially in Africa can afford. Since 1980, China has been recording an economic growth of at least 10% thus, tripling its growth. The China transport infrastructures like roads, waterways/canals have connected it to the rest of the world (Levanthes 50). Furthermore, China’s political relationship with other countries like Kenya, Ethiopia, Zambia and Mozambique among other has led to the establishment of industries and good transport systems that are positively driving the economies. Consequently, it has overtaken United States as a major trade partner in the world. However, this move has forced China to become one of the world’s major pollutants thus, posing detrimental effects to the environment and the human health.
Emerging global economies are undercutting the United States of America as the world giant. For instance, currently, China has increased its lending levels to Africa when compared to America. From 1990s, China and India as emerging economies have recorded double economic growth when compared to America. For example, while China records a growth of more than 10% America can only get half. The emerging economies are producing cheap products destined fro developed and underdeveloped countries. Consequently, America, which boasts of expensive products, can only import raw materials from African but the processed good are unaffordable for the developing/undeveloped countries.
European countries like German, France and Britain majorly have the greatest GDP in the world. Therefore, they control the international monetary fund, World Bank and foreign markets. However, the emerging nations have strengthened the trade on the euro markets. With increased prices of commodities and high standards of living, the European countries have faced strong competition from these new economies. Emerging global economies control approximately 40% of the world GDP, leading to an increased foreign investment in the European region. On the other hand, China, Brazil and India are not only proving cheap services to the world but also forcing the European nations to do the same.
African enslavement started in the 17th century and various factors contributed to this activity. First, the colonization of the African states provided a better chance for the whites to enslave the blacks. Secondly, the availability of African as laborers from the Atlantic traders made it easier for the European farmers to acquire them. Thirdly, Africans had the stamina to work, endure hardships especially in times of extreme weather, disease outbreaks especially malaria and advanced body immunity when compared to other races (Khapoya 80). The African economic activities like farming, iron ores and carpentry attracted the Europeans to enslave them. Finally, the difference in skin color when compared to other races portrayed Africa as having different human system from other races.
The map of Africa in the 17th century lacked distinct definition. However, its creator used wild animals to describe the Africa and Sub-Saharan region. Note it is during this time when the Europeans were invading Africa. Therefore, the use of elephants and lions to fill some spaces was to warn or direct the Europeans on how to explore and traverse the region without facing dangerous wild animals. Furthermore, the use of trade goods and enlightened the whites on quick ways to access them. Those who needed elephant tusks could easily get them by using the map. Therefore, according to Blaeu the map was to assist the whites in trading, invasion and eventual settlement in Africa.
Khapoya Vincent. The African Experience. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,
New Jersey, 1998
Levanthes Louis. When China Ruled the Seas. Oxford University Press, New