Following the American Psychological Association’s Guidelines
History: According to an article published in American Journal of Bioethics the history of amphetamines began in 1887 in Germany . It was created by Lazar, Edeleanu, a German scientist. During WWII, amphetamines were used to enhance performance but by 1965, were outlawed by the USFDA, when abuse became extensive after the war (2013). Today it is most commonly used, illegally, be baseball players to enhance performance much like it did for the soldiers of WWII. Known as “greenies” the substance has been outlawed in sports but players continue to abuse it (2013).
Pharmacokinetics: “Toxicity of Amphetamines: An Update” states that amphetamines are absorbed based on an individual’s gastrointestinal pH. Amphetamine is a weak base of 9 or 10, allowing more of it to be absorbed into the cell membranes and the gut epithelium (2012). Many different enzymes in the body are used to metabolize the amphetamines after being absorbed into the blood stream; red blood cells convert the amphetamine into dextroamphetamine. The kidneys eliminate amphetamine from the body, usually within two days of the dose. (2012).
Pharmadynamics: Amphetamine impacts the body in many ways. For instance, acetylcholine releases at higher rates after it is used. This stimulation affects the hippocampus and nucleus acumens, which activates the nicotinic receptor. This reacton, according to Marcia Carvalho, author of “Toxicity of Amphetamines: An Update” explains the nootropic effects of amphetamine that take place in the CNS (2012). Amphetamines also impact the muscle systems of the body, making them more receptive and responsive to activity such as weight training or alternate physical activity, making them ideal for performance enhancement, such as we have seen in baseball and World War II.
Social Effects: Social effects of amphetamines, according to an article published in Psychopharmacology suggest that amphetamines decrease our perception of negative emotions in others. It was hypothesized that this would create more stimulating, positive social interactions for individuals currently using amphetamines. This rise in perceived positivity and lack of negative recognition would, therefore, increase the perceived value of our social interactions. However, amphetamines typically decrease response to any facial expression. Amphetamine does cause increased talkativeness even after the inability to identify positive or negative emotions (Wardle, Garner, Munafo, & de Wit 2012)
Carvalho, M. (2012). Toxicity of amphetamines: an update. Archives of Toxicology, 1167-1231.
Ilieva, I., & Farah, M. J. (2013). Cognitive Enhancement with Amphetamine: History Repeats Itself. American Journal of Bioethics, 24-25.
Wardle, M. C., Garner, M. J., Munafo, M. R., & de Wit, H. (2012). Amphetamine as a social drug: effects of d-amphetamine on social processing and behavior. Psychopharmacology, 199-210.