Information Technology Effects
The objective of the paper is to analyze the effects of information technology on interpersonal communication. Technology advancement and continued economic development have both positive and negative effects on interpersonal communication. The topic is one of organizational development studies that investigate effects of technology on communications. The paper reviews both positive and negative effects of information technology, its effect on interpersonal communication. With the preamble of a new communication and information age, techniques of social communications continue to change. The project analyzes the effects of information technology in the love or relationship cases, workplace, and for recreational purposes. The scenarios mentioned have interpersonal communication that seems to have degenerated due to the introduction of information technologies. The paper incorporates survey comprising of 10 questions as the methodology for primary data collection. The research hypothesis and concludes that information technology has effects on interpersonal communication.
Communication refers to the interchange, exchange, or broadcast of messages, it occurs for many reasons. Most communication happens since the message is anticipated either to enlighten or to entertain, or both. The gap between interaction and communication has grown to the extent that social level has either improved or deteriorated considerably. With the proliferation of technologies surpassing the barriers of space and time, it is .possible to meet people globally, gain knowledge of other cultures, sustain, and strengthen family relationships, assist individuals to be more socially adept, and communicate effectively. However, with these benefits, the technologies also came with numerous side effects. Some technological developments make people be abstracted, excessively strained, and increasingly secluded. Several individuals engage in plentiful relations via technology; however, in most case, these associations leave involved parties with an empty feeling since personal interactions are limited. Therefore, it is applicable to conclude that information technology can either harm or improve individuals’ social life and skills. Technologies can help individuals build positive and meaningful relationships or hinder these processes. Information technologies can increase or decrease an individual concern and compassion for others, and desire to serve them.
Information technology has transformed not just the ways individuals communicate in their everyday lives; however, it has also affected people’s interactions interact approaches. With advancement in communication technology, communication has become a more multifaceted practice. Today, most people have mobile phones at their disposal and communicate with people without the obstacle of time and distance. Modern technology permits populace to converse straightforwardly from their smart phone gadget. Services such as emails, phone calls, text messages, and internet surfing are accessible to all. The benefits and flaws of information technology form the basis of the study.
Information Technology has Effects on Interpersonal Communication
What are the positive effects of information technology on interpersonal communication?
What are the negative effects of information technology on interpersonal communication?
Information Technology Effects
According to Human Kinetics (2010), the application of information technology has both positive and negative effects. It is remarkable the way individuals can discover a lasting relationship via a social networking system, allowing the individuals to reconnect. In a world where individuals are quite mobile and are often physically estranged, it is suitable to communicate via technology (Human Kinetics, 2010).
In 2008, Salaway, Caruso, and Nelson conducted a study about information technology and students usage. The study’s finding discovered that 85 percent of student surveyed employed social networking platforms to communicate with one another (Salaway, Caruso, & Nelson, 2008). The study discovered that most participants reported that they are using information technology. Figure 1 below indicates how students use system sites that deal with information technology. The study found indications that application of this information technology is escalating annually.
Figure 0: Use of Social Networking Sites, by Age
Advantages of using technologies in a work place include improves communication, promote creativity and innovation, saves time, improves human resource management, and creates mobility.
Interpersonal communication involves the conveyance and receipt of information among people. In a work place and other areas interpersonal communication involves the communication in a range of relational circumstances like among co-workers, managers and subordinates, it is an essential skill to master. According to a business article report, fortune 500 corporations acknowledged communication, strong interpersonal, and team works and skills as key criteria for accomplishment in administration efforts (Business.uni.edu, 2005).
According to Pearson, Nelson, Scott, and Harter (2003), intrapersonal communication denotes a process of comprehending and internalizing concepts within the self. It is the personal procedure of organizing sense between people in state permitting mutual chances for communication or conversations. Interpersonal relationships are connections among people (Pearson, Nelson, Scott & Harter, 2003). For interpersonal communication to occur, individuals must interact, exchange and study information that assists maintain or stop associations. The common types of interpersonal relationships comprise of family, friendship, professional, and romantic (Doyle, 2005).
The personal aspects of interpersonal communication are diverse and can be seen in family and or work environments. In a family or familiarity connection, the key function of communication is just to build and sustain ideal relationship (Business.uni.edu, 2005). On the other hand, in business situations, every interpersonal connection is based on a complex system of interconnected associations. As an outcome, the capability of communicating interpersonally is a fundamental ability for almost any other managerial activity (Business.uni.edu, 2005).
According to Beebe, Beebe, and Redmond (2002), interpersonal communication happens not the moment an individual just interacts with another, but when one regards the other individual as special person. From this aspect, the practice can happen through emails and writing, also in a face-to-face situation. Conversely, even strangers interacting respectfully with others are said to be communicating interpersonally (Business.uni.edu, 2005).
According to Singh (2014), interpersonal communication is an efficient instrument for promoting employees engagement of the association concerned in different activities. Singh (2014) pointed out that long-term research of Fortune 1000 corporations shows affirmative potencies applicable in employee participation programs in these organizations. The author reiterated that every organization, despite business or nation, demands more effective and pertinent results (Singh, 2014).
The following sections of the study look critically at whether effects of information technology on interpersonal communication have positive or negative outcomes
The Positive Effects of Information Technology on Interpersonal Communication
Nelson (2012) pointed out that numerous researches have been carried out regarding technology’s impacts on social involvement and personal communication since the innovation information technology. Przybylski and Weinstein wrote that recent improvement in a communication system has allowed billions of persons to link easily with individuals from great distances.
Nelson (2012) continued to point out that technology transforms the experiences that individuals have when conversing. The author reiterated that information technologies eradicate the space issues permitting individuals to correspond with the application of technology in manners unique. Furthermore, studies have shown that information technology continues to enhance communication as it consolidates the globe into people’s bedrooms and living rooms, automobiles and offices (Nelson, 2012). Due to information technologies, individuals currently value instant emotional involvement and gratification. Gamble and Gamble (2005) discover that information technology has allowed individuals to socialize in more ways, faster and with many individuals. The technology advancement has allowed people to experience events instantly as they occur across the world (Gamble & Gamble, 2005).
According to Zenith (2008) study, internet invention has made the world an effective interconnected global society. Individuals from all parts of the globe are able to communicate easily with everyone faster and easily via cyberspace (Zenith, 2008). Email has become a fast, liberated, and expedient technique to communicates, substituting conventional mail in the procedure. The information technologies have certainly made it uncomplicated and suitable for individuals to communicate with others. Researchers have shown that ease of communication due to technology advancement has many philosophical effects (Zenith, 2008).
Zenith (2008) article demonstrates that in the business environment, information technologies have made executions of deals much easier through video conferencing, emails, and mobile phone technology. Individuals can now send and check messages as they move or at any place since they are connected 24-7 (Zenith, 2008). Information technology has a revolutionized the way individuals converse and relate with one another. As the world advances via the information era, different technological procedures like television, personal computers, and Smartphone have established a presence in individuals lives (Zenith, 2008).
On relationship concepts, information technology has influenced the manner in which marriage partners are created. Marriage partners are currently paired via dating sites through computer connections (Nelson & Quick, 2014). Information technology advances such as chat rooms a common structure of communication among people, substituting a personal meet up (Zenith, 2008). The transformation of technology results to ease of communication, bendable, and more reasonable. Consequently, individual from diverse concepts and places are capable to enjoying better communication skill (Nelson & Quick, 2014).
According to Rustanta (2012), the expansion of know-how is pressing in the contemporary globe. It is evident that every novelty is created to provide most gains for involved parties. It is devised to assist individuals to communicate faultlessly. The study has shown that people are knowledgeable and have gained due to the advanced of technology via they have to be acquainted with that the superior of machinery with harmful consequence in terms of education, economy, politic, communication, and others (Rustanta, 2012).
Social networks speed up the transformation of communication conduct. People are capable of contacting others anytime and anywhere. These individuals are capable of sharing, chatting, and talking freely with minimal space and time constraints (Plomp, 2003). In addition, the message activities in school, family, business meeting, meeting room, and anywhere else, are transformed (Rustanta, 2012). The progress of information technology has transformed the behavior of individuals to make them more open in conversation. Furthermore, information technology is allowing individuals to communicate with society, family, and to any person in this world without the anxiety of diversity in culture and nature (Rustanta, 2012).
Rustanta (2012) pointed out that information technology transform individuals in handling information. Latest mobile devices such as Smartphone help individuals in receiving latest data concerning the globe faster and accurately (Rustanta, 2012). Smartphone transforms unworkable existence into very convenient one due to techniques of the device makes work simpler. The tool makes business and private practices to be complicated easier, faster, and accurately. Information technology has allowed the user to limit bank visitation due to transaction since there is electronic banking or SMS banking (Rustanta, 2012). The technique has limited personal interaction between customers and banking official thus reducing interpersonal communication.
The last positive effect of information technology on international communication relates with confidence (Rustanta, 2012). The progress of information technology increases confidence. Individuals are keen to brag and communicate effectively through information technology. The transformation of individual performance occurs since they can distribute in any social platform. Rustanta (2012) concludes that the extra social network they connect the more acquaintances and others. The more individuals have associates; they gain certainty (Rustanta, 2012). Information technology influence interpersonal communication due to many reasons; however, the main reason is that it encourages ease of interactions and communications.
The Negative Effects of Information Technology on Interpersonal Communication
Like most things, information technology also has a negative effect on interpersonal communication. The destructive effect of information technology comprises of decline on the value of social life. The techniques do not assure that private message can be remitted flawlessly. However, the technology advancement is progressing simultaneously with the expansion of destructive technologies (Rustanta, 2012).
While the technology makes it easier to better maintain associations due to constant contact, the relationships being maintained are not as strong as those relationships in a few decades ago (Lane, 2014). Lane (2014) argues that with the introduction of knowledge that permits individuals being in constant communication with each other, individual communication has become a mere surface phase of relationships. Having additional casual forms of interactions like texting, interpersonal communication has become less formal (Lane, 2014). Even though the problem is an enormous subject, when a person is checking on a companion or communicating with parents for fast information on progress; however, it is a big predicament when the value for power transformation is taken as casual. For formal communication, an email or transcript sent to an acquaintance tends to appear similar as an electronic mail send to a professor or an important person (Lane, 2014). The main challenge is that individuals are moving faster into the Snapchat era, interpersonal communications and steady associations begin to fade. Even though they can never be gone totally, the consequences of information technologies are real and significant in personal relationships (Lane, 2014).
According to Collegiate Times (2016) report, the gap between social interaction and communication is growing. If not checked it will lead to the point of no necessity for the personal association, on a communal phase. It is evident that technology is people’ discovery that is separating them from other species; however, people continue to expand and advance it to the extent that of destroying a conspicuously human procedure, communication (Collegiate Times, 2016). The Internet is seen as the catalyst of curiosity, it is making people explore avenues of contact that are interfering with interpersonal communication. Whether or not the information technology facilitates discovery is debatable, and regrettably, people are increasing so swiftly to online usage that detection created offline is restricted and frequently destabilized (Collegiate Times, 2016). The information technology is enormously suitable, leading to all the extra complications that need avoidance. Some people may argue that the systems or technologies are becoming more valuable that personal interactions. The importance attached to these technologies is eradicating the benefits of interpersonal communications that people enjoy when they communicate face-to-face (Collegiate Times, 2016).
According to Drago (2015), recent technological improvements have led to drastic influence on the manner people relate and communicate. In Drago (2015) research, preceding researches were evaluated, observations conducted, and internet survey presented to establish the phase of commitment persons have with phones and technologies with face-to-face conditions (Drago, 2015). Results propose that information technology has an unconstructive effect on value and amount of face-to-face contact. Drago (2015) argues that regardless of individuals’ consciousness of the decline of face-to-face contact as an outcome of information technology, over 62% of participants from Elon’s university keep on use mobile in the company of colleagues (Drago, 2015). The habit affects the way these students communicate since concentration is put on the phone instead of surrounding peers.
Furthermore, Drago, (2015) pointed out that one study evaluated the association between the existence of information technologies and the value of personal life, interpersonal social involvement. The result demonstrated that real-life is negatively affected by the use of telephone information. Misra, Cheng, Genevie and Yuan (2014) a naturalistic field research showed that communications in the deficiency of information technologies were valued as extensively better compared with the communications when a mobile device is involved. The study revealed that individuals who had a conversation in the nonexistence of mobile instruments recorded higher extends of empathetic apprehension, at the same time as participants communicating in the existence of a mobile mechanism showed reduced extents of empathy (Misra et al., 2014). The study is a proof that information technologies have negative effects on interpersonal communications.
In another study, Przybylski and Weinstein (2012) revealed same outcomes that established the existence of information technologies in social environments affects how individuals relate (Drago, 2015). In two distinct types of research, the investigators discovered proof that information technology devices have pessimistic effects on familiarity, association, and communication value, in particular, prominent when people are involving in personally significant subjects (Drago, 2015). These studies are proofs that technologies have negative effects on interpersonal communications since they reduce the value of communication and interactions.
Zenith (2008) argued that the internet has transformed the manner individuals socialize. Even though this has widened the societal ring of numerous individuals to some extent, spouses are not capable of meeting in person due to various reasons and the process has many impacts. Every person has just the data, which the other individual chooses to remit (Zenith, 2008). The practice makes the parties have an impractical view concerning one another. In the workplaces, in spite of all the benefits provided by technology, many negative effects are also presented and considered. For example, in most workplaces, simple communications that used to be provided in persons are currently communicated through impersonal techniques like email (Zenith, 2008).
Lastly, it is applicable to conclude that the development of information technology shifts individualism and personal characteristics. The previous civilization like communicating to other people in person is currently fading (Nelson & Quick, 2014). It is currently transforming and being replaced by chatting through the instantaneous messaging system like twitter and Facebook. Personal conferences or convergences are not popular anymore because they are replaced by technology (Rustanta, 2012).
The literature review has shown that information technologies improve interpersonal communication since they break the barriers of time and space. Individuals can communicate with one another in a faster and more convenience way through these technologies. However, despite the vast positive effects, the technologies make individual loose the personal touch and affect relationships.
In this research, Information technology is the independent variable (IV) while the effect on interpersonal communication is the dependent variable (DV). The study will examine the association between interpersonal communication and information technologies with randomly selected participants from various sectors. Survey Questionnaires were conducted this study using 10 questions structured in a five Likert scale. The result is computed using MS-Excel or SPSS to get mean and standard deviation is computed in exploratory and interpretation. The readers and other researchers do data analysis to convert raw data into easily understandable information. The study shows that information technologies have both positive and negative effects on interpersonal communication.
1: SD = Strongly Disagree, 2: D = Disagree, 3: N = Neutral, 4: A = Agree, 5: SA = Strongly Agree. Where 1: Less, 5: Most
Kindly respond to the following research questions or statements to the best of your understandings
Information Technology statements
The gap between information technology and interpersonal communication has influenced social life of individual differently
Information technology has transformed not just the ways individuals communicate in their everyday lives
Information technology has both negative and positive effects on individuals
Information technologies improve interpersonal communication since they break the barriers of time and space
The information technologies make individual looses the personal touch and affects relationships.
Effect on Interpersonal Communication statements
Interpersonal relationships are connections among people and it is affected by information technology
Currently, with advent in information technologies, interpersonal communications are negatively affected than they are positively influenced
Technologies have negative effects on interpersonal communications since they reduce the value of communication and interactions
Real-life is negatively affected by the use of telephone information
As individuals move faster into the Snapchat generation, interpersonal communications and steady associations begin to fade.
The use of questioners results in getting a more open response from the study participant. The study employed a questioner with ten questions. The first question on the questioner involved asking whether the gap between information technology and interpersonal relationship influences the social lives of people differently. The question had five responses, which were trongly disagreed, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly agree. Out of the ten responses, six of the respondents (60%) strongly agree, two respondents agree, while the other two respondents took a neutral. There was zero disagreement about the first statement.
The second statement on the questioner asked the participants to respond to whether information technology has transformed other areas of life other than communication. Of the ten responses received, eight of the participants (80%) strongly agreed with the other 20 % agreeing that information technology has also transformed other areas of life. There was zero percent disagreement from the responses.
The third question was about participants responding to the statement that information technology has both positive and negative effects on people. This statement resulted in varied responses with five individuals (50%) strongly agreeing with the third question. Two respondents (20%) agreed that information technology has affected people both positively and negatively. Two respondents took a neutral perspective while one respondent (10%) gave a disagreeing perspective.
The fourth question required the study participants to respond to the statement that information technology has resulted in the breaking of time and space barriers; therefore, improve interpersonal communication. Four of the participants (40%) explained strongly agreed that information technology has resulted in fewer barriers. Three respondents (30%) agreed with the statement. Two of the respondents (20%) disagreed while one participant (10%) strongly disagreed with the statement.
The fifth question involved responding to a statement that information technology has resulted in people losing their personal touch, therefore, affects relationships. Five of the respondents (50%) strongly agreed with three other respondents (30%) agreeing that information technology has led to people losing a personal touch with one another. The other two respondents took a disagreeing perspective. There was neither a neutral or strong disagreement response from the participants.
The sixth question asked the participants to respond to the statement that information technology affected the interpersonal relations between people. Interpersonal relationships in the statement referred to the connections that existed between people. Five of the responses (50%) strongly agreed with the statement. Two of the respondents (20%) agreed while one took a neutral standpoint. The other two respondents disagreed with the statement.
The seventh question asked respondents to agree or disagree with the statement that information technology has affected interpersonal communication much more negatively than positively. Two respondents (20%) strongly agreed that information technology has led to a higher negative effect as compared to the positive effects. Three respondents (30%) agreed with the statement with two respondents taking a neutral opinion. Two respondents (20%) disagreed with only one respondent (10%) strongly disagreeing.
The eighth question involved a statement explaining information technology to have reduced the value of interactions and communication; therefore, a negative effect on interpersonal relationships. Four respondents strongly agreed, while five respondents agreed that information technology has resulted in reduced value for personal interactions. There was only one disagreement response from the participants.
The ninth questions involved a statement that explained telephone information to have negatively affected real life. Three respondents strongly (30%) strongly disagreed that a negative effect had resulted from telephony. Three participants disagreed while four respondents agreed with that telephony had affected real life negatively. There was neither a neutral or strong disagreement response from the participants.
The tenth question involved participants responding to the statement that the movement of using social media has resulted in the fading of steady and interpersonal associations. Four respondents (40%) strongly agreed that the fast integration of social media has resulted in fading interpersonal association by promoting association through the internet. There were three participants (30%) who took an agreeing perspective. Two participants disagreed, with one participant strongly disagreeing.
The research objective was to examine the effect of information technology on interpersonal relationships. The various responses from the participants showed most participants to believe that information technology has affected the nature of interpersonal communities either positively or negatively. The results of the first question showed a positive response with 80 % of the responses explain that information technology affects the lives the social lives of people differently. As noted in Nelson and Quick (2014) and Zenith (2008), information technology has greatly affected how people relate to each other socially. Gamble and Gamble (2005) also explained information technology to have resulted in the development of newer socialization methods.
The results of the second question also showed positive results with all the respondents agreeing with the statement. Eighty percent of the respondents strongly agreed that information technology has affected communication, as well as other areas of life. The other twenty percent also agreed with the statement. These results reflected Rustanta (2012) study, which explained information technology to have affected areas such as education, and machinery. Salaway, Caruso, and Nelson (2008) also explained information technology to have affected other areas of life other than education and communication.
The third question talked about information technology having both a positive and negative effect on different people. Seventy percent of the respondents agreed that information technology has both positive and negative effects while ten percent disagreed. The other twenty percent took a neutral perspective. These results showed that majority of the people had experienced the positive and negative effect of information technology. According to Human Kinetics (2010), information technology has affected the social relations and lives of people in both a positive and negative way. The results reflect the same findings as the human kinetics report.
The fourth question analyzed the effect of information technology on reducing the time and space barrier. Seventy percent of the participants agreed that information technology had assisted in reducing the time and date barrier; therefore, assisted in the improvement of communication. Thirty percent of the participants disagreed with the statement. The results of the fourth question explained that information technology has resulted in a reduction of the time and space barrier; thus, allowing people from different areas to communicate in real time. The results reflected the same results as Nelson (2012) who explained information technology to have brought the world into people’s kitchens and bedrooms.
The fifth question implored that people have lost their personal touch due to over relying on information technology. Eighty percent of the respondents agreed while twenty percent disagreed. These results show that most individuals consider information technology to have affected the day-to-day interactions of people; therefore affected the way relationships are formed and sustained. These results are quite similar to those in Lane (2014), who explained the overreliance on technology devices to communicate has resulted in people connecting more using devices rather than personally. The loss of that personal touch has also affected many relationships as the relationships were formed through technological devices rather that personal interactions.
The sixth question involved an exploration into the effects of information technology on interpersonal relationships between people. Seventy percent of the participants agree with the statement that information technology has affected how people connect with one another. These results explain that information technology has influenced how people relate to one another. These results reflected the same results as the Collegiate Times (2016) report, which explained information technology to have resulted in the creation of a gap in people social interactions. The results also reflected Drago (2015) argument that information technology has resulted in reduced face-to-face contact; therefore reduced connectivity.
The seventh question explored the rate at which information technology has affected interpersonal communication. Fifty percent of the responses explained information technology to have had a higher negative impact on interpersonal communications as compared to the positive impact. Thirty percent of the respondents disagreed with the statement that information technology has more negative effects than the positive. These results show that most individuals consider interpersonal relationships to have resulted influenced interpersonal communication in a more negative way. The results reflect Przybylski and Weinstein (2012) findings that explained information technology to have resulted in poorer communication as well as negative effects on how people relate.
The eighth question explored the respondents’ views on whether technology has resulted in reduced value for communication and interactions. Ninety percent of the sample agreed with the view that information technology has resulted in communication and interactions having a reduced value. These results relate to Drago (2015) findings, which explained information technology to have resulted in reduced value for face-to-face interactions.
The ninth statement in the questioner required respondents to agree or disagree on whether real life is negatively affected by telephones. Sixty percent of the participants disagreed with the statement while forty percent agreed with the statement. These results show the division that exists in the population regarding explaining the effects of information technology on the lives of people.
The tenth statement in the questioner assessed the effects of social media networks on interpersonal communication and associations. Seventy percent of the respondents agreed with the statement with thirty percent disagreeing. These results reflect Lane’s (2014) conclusion, which explained the fast integration of people into social networks has resulted in fading of interpersonal relations.
The development of information technology has affected different areas of life including businesses and family life. Information technology has resulted in an increased efficiency in conducting business by ensuring fast and easy communication. On the other hand, information, technology has affected the family structure negatively as it has resulted in lesser interactions between family members.
This study examines the effect information technology has had on interpersonal communication by employing the use of a questioner. The study results showed information technology to have affected interpersonal communication both positively and negatively. The results explained information technology to have resulted in reduced face-to-face interactions between people. The reduction in the face-to-face interactions has communication between family members negatively; therefore, reduced interpersonal communication between family members. The study, however, found that that information technology had resulted in improved communication within the business environment. As opposed to the family environment, business relationships often require less face-to-face interactions. Information technology may result in reduced face-to-face interactions but promotes communication; therefore, information technology has a positive effect on business.
Interpersonal communication is also affected by how people socialize. The study results showed information technology to have affected how different groups of people socialize. The increase in social networks has resulted in people interacting more on the internet. The increase in online connection has, in turn, resulted in a reduced face-to-face interaction. Other than affecting the rates of interaction, information technology has also had an impact on relationships. Internet dating sites have provided a new way of people meeting up. Information technology has promoted the socialization of people on the internet at the cost of socialization using face-to-face interactions. This impact can be viewed as a positive and negative as information technology has resulted in more interpersonal communication on the web and less interpersonal communication in real life.
The study, however, faced several limitations, which may affect the results and study conclusions. A significant limitation was the number of participants. The study used a limited number of participants; therefore, may not reflect the whole population. For any future studies on the effects of information technology on interpersonal communication, I would recommend using more participants, which may result in finding reflecting the whole population. Another limitation was the use of a closed questioner, which affected the detail in the responses. A recommendation is for future study is to involve more open-ended questioner; therefore, get responses with more detail. There is also a need for future studies to examine more of the negative and positive effects that information technology has on interpersonal communications.
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