1-a:Booting is the process by which computers get initialized by loading operating system into computers main memory when the computer motherboard is powered. The Basic Input-Output system (BIOS) read only memory (ROM) chip gets woken up taking the charge. BIOS identify the booting files and copy information from 512byte area into random access memory (RAM) forming master boot record. Boot record loaded into hexadecimal 7C00 in RAM to load initial system file. The initial file then loads the rest of operating system into RAM starting with system configuration file .Special file telling which specific application or commands to be included in boot process is loaded e.g. WINI.INI, DOS and AUTEXEC.BAT. The operating system then takes control of the computer performing requested initial commands waiting for the first interactive user input.
2-a: Network architectures are broadly categorized into two, namely peer-to-peer and client-server architectures. Peer-to -peer model have system decomposed into computational nodes or work stations having equal responsibilities and capabilities. Peers are both senders and consumers of resources can be pure, hybrid or central model. Applicable in content delivery, exchange of physical goods, services or space, distributing search engines, communication network like Skype and VoIP. Client-server model have cooperating programs built on client and server processors supporting separating functions based on the service concept. Servers only supply resources as clients receive. Commonly used in email exchange, web access and data base among others.
3-a: Hierarchy of data is a series of ordered grouping systematically involving fields, records and files into tree like structure allowing representation of data attributes specifically listed under an entity type also known as one-to many relationship as child to parent relationship. The data collected can be accessed and immediately manipulated by data processing system for specific purpose.
3-a: Virus is a program, a file or a piece of code which attaches its self to executable files severely damaging hardware, software or files. Spread from one computer to another by human action. Worm is a sub class of virus capable of duplicating its self with in the active memory of the computer. Worms spread unaided by human action but take advantage of the file or information transport features of the computer system hence sending numerous copies as emails or interment relay chat. They consume network bandwidth or system memory destroying computers, network servers or web servers. Trojan is a malicious program pretending to be useful software but turns to be destructive ones installed on computers they add silly desktop icon, delete files there by destroying information, create backdoor on personal computers hence compromising privacy and confidentiality .Don’t replicate themselves.
3-b: Information theft is Collecting information about an individual or organization explicitly without permission by cracking into victim’s data base. This crime is mostly committed through internet connections with data collection programs installed to secretly gather data, through wireless devices like Bluetooth with attackers taking advantage of object exchange protocol problems synchronizing with victim’s device. The hackers may further commit identify crime by imposters impersonating the victims to enjoy services available to the victims. The information may also be stolen through shoulder surfing with attackers standing next some one filling in any information form in public. Prevented through installation of security software like intrusion detection system or intrusion prevention system to monitor and analyze potentially unwanted programs. At the same time avoiding filling confidential information forms in public.
4-c: CASE tools are computer aided software engineering technologies providing automated assistance to developers of software. Used to classify boundaries, prototype, prepare design, describe current system with uppercase tools capturing, analyzing, and organizing models of a system in linear behavior as lower case develops and maintain software. CASE tools are used to increase productivity of software analyst, enhance effective communication between users and other members of software development team and appropriately assess effects and costs of changes to estimate maintenance cost.
5-b: Language used for web page development must serve the needs of web site owner depending on server platform, running server software, cost, experience in programming, and database chosen as backend. Examples of languages are either scriptures or statically typed language.eg Hyper Text Mark up language used by World Wide Web client’s .applies standard generalized mark up language principles. Displaying ASCII text affected by embedded instructions fetching document by its name e.g. URL. JAVA a stand alone program as an embedded applet in a web site compiled for virtual machine.PHP –Hypertext processor for programming in server side interweaving code with HTML for mix layout. ColdFusion scripting language based on standard HTML tags intermingling with ColdFusion mark up language tags .Web DNA language for server side programming in a hybrid database memory and virtual modeling language.
6-a: Enterprise computing is the use of computers in networks containing various operating systems, protocols or network architecture with application software offering business oriented tools such as online shopping, automated billing system and human resource management etc. finance unit use it for budgeting, cash management and forecasting and analysis of prospective investments, for account it helps in calculating accounts payable and receivable, showing sales information and cost accounting. Engineering unit applies it to schedule and track production and monitor quality of production. Also used to analyze information from surveys, control inventories tracking chain of distribution and manage interaction with customers,
6-a: Computer related careers are computer and information science to find solutions to computer related problems, software engineering with engineers creating operating systems, computer system analysis with analyst designing new computer systems analyzing and choosing the best software and hardware for computers, web developing with developers responsible for functioning of websites and web mastering as web master design and analyze user data and responding to user feedback among others.
Deitel & Associates (1992-2005).Introduction to Computers, the internet, and World Wide Web retrieved from http://www.deitel.com/books/cpphtp5/cpphtp5_01_sample.pdf
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2012) .Booting retrieved from, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booting
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2012 ). Network architecture, retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_architecture