1 & 2. Classes of contents of hazards and their definitions, as stated under section 6.3.2 of the NFPA 101 code.
According to NFPA101, the hazard of contents has three categories. These classes are based on the level of a combustion of the materials in a room. These categories include: the high hazard, the low hazard and the ordinary hazard. High hazard contents are areas that can self-propagate fires. High hazard contents are those that in case of a fire outbreak, it can easily and readily spread. The materials are highly combustible. In cases of fires, explosions are likely.
The ordinary hazard contents are the ones that combust moderately. They also do not produce too much smoke. Most buildings are in this class. Poisonous fumes are also another aspect or characteristic where fire breaks out in these buildings. With proper exits, there should no exposure to any endangering fumes.
Low hazard materials are rare as the materials here are of low combustible rate. Fires are also less likely to start up on their own. However, due to modifications combustible materials might be added to the setup. As a result the no building is classified as low content hazard.
3. Where are low hazard content areas likely?
Low content hazard is more likely to be seen in buildings that are yet to be occupied. They should also be made of raw materials such as glass or stone.
4. The Most Popular Classification
The ordinary hazard content applies to most buildings. This is because due to safety measures and possible future modifications, combustible content can be introduced in the setting. It also requires that there are no combustible materials in the setting. High hazard content arrears are often associated with fuel and explosives.
5. High Hazard occupancy area preparedness requirements, as defined in section 6.2 have the following characteristics.
High hazard occupancy areas should have a maximum travel distance of 150ft (46m).
The minimum means of egress is 3 for a room of more than 200 ft2
Egress capacity for stairs is the occupant load of the street’s floor and a width of more than 44 in.
7. Refuge Floors
Various views of the refugee floors are given. A refuge floor can be discussed as a floor where escapes can rest. During fires, it is advisable not to use stairs. If it is a large story building, people may require to rest. A refuge floor can also be viewed as a place separated from the rest of the building that has a firefighting equipment. This room is also considered a low hazard area and people can find refuge here. The second description best suits the term. People are safer and they also have firefighting requirements .
8. The Deference Behavior
The deference behavior stipulates the delay caused by those already at the exits . It is not possible to evacuate everyone at the same time. People who are already at the exits hinder those in the buildings from exiting the building. As a result, those at lower floors of the building, are at a higher advantage in the case of evacuation. This is a concern since people located on higher floors feel less safe as compared to those on the lower floors.
9. As Tubbs and Meacham (103) argue, people that are already situated at the exit stairwell are likely to defer to individuals that are entering from the lower floors, a phenomenon that leads to lower floors being given priority in the evacuation process. The overall evacuation time is therefore likely to be longer and hence an understanding of occupant characteristics is key in quicken the rescue time when everyone is trying to leave at the same time.
10. People with disabilities require extra assistance in the event of evacuation. This generally means that it takes more time to evacuate an individual with disabilities compared to other people. Since the idea behind evacuation is to save as many lives as possible, then generally, people with disabilities are rescued last.
Tubbs, Jeffrey and Brian Meacham. Egress design solutions : a guide to evacuation and crowd management planning. New Jersey: Wiley, 2007. Print.