An open system interconnection (OSI) is a good reference tool for understanding different data communications between network systems. It usually divides communication into seven different layers. Each layer performs a specific functions offering support to the layer above it. It also offers services to the lower layer, below it. In all cases tree lowest layers mainly focuses on passing traffic through the network to an end system. The remaining four layers come into play in the end system to complete the process. A network model offers a generic means that separate computer networking functions into multiple layers. Each layer relies on the layer below it in order to provide enough supporting capabilities, and performs support to a layer above it. It is mostly referred as protocol stack. The nature of these stacks is that the lower layers do most of their work in the hardware. On the other hand, the higher layer works in the software. This model is well advanced in that it allows all networks to operate together. It works very well regardless of who created the protocols and what computer vendor supports it. It helps the user understand the big picture of networking. It also makes troubleshooting easier by separating networks into different manageable pieces. The other benefit of OSI is that it aids in interpreting vendor explanations of product functionality.
IPv6 is a new version of the internet protocol. It was originally designed to extend address space, enhancements of new features. Some of the challenges in today’s internet is the increased traffic flow. Increased need for security and information protection. The other challenge is that new applications have specific delivery requirements. IPv6 provides a good platform for the new internet functionality that will be needed in the immediate future. This version provides flexibility for further growth and future expansion. The main features of IPv6 are that it has expanded addressing and routing capabilities. As the same time it has simplified header format. Some of the drawbacks of IPv6 is that it’s not available to machines which run on an IPv4. A consumer will incur many cash having to replace an IPv4 machine; it takes a lot of time to covert to IPv6 as well. People should use this new version of IPv6, as it is a more powerful internet protocol, which uses 128 bit compared to the old IPv4 of 32 bit. With IPv6, the experience of serving the net has been made easier and faster.
Whether you are a student, professor or an author, occasions usually arise on whether to use a copyrighted works of others. A copyright protection in different occasions arises the moment any original work is put up. It can be when a text is written or typed, or even when a song is recorded. In many cases, it is not necessary for a work to be published, registered or has copyright so that it can be protected by copyright. The fair use mostly allows limited use of a copyrighted material without any kind of permission from the holder. This opens the door for different purposes like parody, criticism, research, news reporting and many more. The four factors to be used in whether to use a copyrighted material are as followed. The character or purpose of the use of a material, which is copyrighted. It can include whether to use for commercial purposes or for profit or nonprofit educational means. The second factor is the nature of the work, like whether the work is non-fiction or fiction. The other one is the amount of work to be used in relation to the work, which copyrighted. Last but not the least the effect of use upon the capable potential market for the copyrighted work.
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Lawrence, O. R. (2004). Computer technology. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.