1. Discuss organization structure and its impact upon the Law Enforcement profession.
Answer: The law enforcement profession and the effectiveness of the whole criminal justice system are directly impacted by the structure of the Justice Administration. There has to be a distinct goal and the organization of the department should be adequately supervised and managed so that the goal can be achieved. Law enforcement is directly impacted by the department’s mission and its relation to the organization. The responsibilities of law enforcement are a result of this impact. Organization structure depends upon the capabilities of the administrators involved and the duties and jobs that follow. The strength of law enforcement depends on how strong the administration of an organization structure is. Usually a chief of police manages a police department and the department is branched into five be bureaus, which are the Administrative Services Bureau, Homeland Security and Investigations Bureau, Patrol Bureau, Special Services Bureau, and the Support Services Bureau. There can also be extra units of each bureau depending on the department. Each bureau is operated by dividing them into smaller divisions. All of these bureaus comprise of separate divisions, and have particular duties and job functions that they have to carry out respectively. Such an administration and organization structure is what ultimately makes Law Enforcement effective.
2. Discuss the concept of consensus versus conflict and the criminal justice system.
Answer: In criminal justice, the consensus model and conflict model are two concepts that have been broadly adopted. Consensus model is an outlook in criminal justice in which it is assumed that the sub-components of the system work concordantly together so that the social product we know as justice can be achieved. Theoretically, the consensus model involves the consent of society in deciding which acts or behaviors are detrimental. Once society agrees about certain matters, those matters are then treated as crimes by the criminal justice system. On the other hand, particular acts or behavior may also be decriminalized if society is able to prove that they are not risky any more. Conflict model is another outlook in criminal justice in which it is assumed that that the sub-components of the system operate solely to serve their own benefits. According to this model, conflicts among the system’s agencies are what results in justice, instead of component agencies working together. This outlook points to the lack of an actual system and highlights the role played by adversarial processes, specifically, the ones that are regarded as primary and fundamental to the “system.” It also points to the fact that often minimal information is shared by many criminal justice organizations.
1. Discuss the impact of community oriented policing and Problem Solving Policing with traditional organizational structures.
Answer: Deterrence through patrolling police personnel, who are visibly present, has always been integral in conventional methods of policing. As a result of the diversity of communities, urban communities face more diverse and violent criminal problems. Controlling crime and enforcing law has always been the fundamental function of the police. In today’s world, this is the model that is widely applied. Both the community-oriented policing and policing controlled by professionals involve issues and problems, and can be compared and contrasted with each other. Both the police and the community work together to identify problems and apply strategies to not only reduce crime but to reduce the fear it has created in the community. Unlike previous models of policing, a completely distinct administrative style is emphasized by community policing. A community policing program can be implemented by an organization, although it is tricky to find the officers for implementing the programming. Community based policing can result in diverted and effective implementation can be hindered if a more democratic organizational style is not adopted. Conventional police organizational structures tend to be a bit concentrated and rigid. A change is required in the organizational style of conventional police organizational structures for community policing initiatives to succeed. Perhaps, at some point involvement of members of the community into certain policing initiatives might also become necessary.
2. Discuss the steps for police selection and the importance of the field training officer.
Answer: The process of selecting police officers is an examination process that continuously progresses. One or more necessary steps have to be successfully passed in order to advance to the next level. Police departments in various locations might have slightly varying steps. However, during police selection, there are usually eight steps. The first step is the Written Examination in which reading and writing abilities are ascertained. The interpersonal, oral communication, problem solving and other such skills of the applicant are assessed in the Departmental Interview step. The physical condition of the applicant is ascertained in the Physical Ability Examination step. A complete background investigation of a candidate is carried out and the candidate has to fill a Personal History Questionnaire in next two steps. Field training is also a crucial part of the police selection process. Most of what police officers learn is usually during field training. A police officer’s training is incomplete without field training. In the next step the accuracy of the applicant’s previous answers and responses is determined through a Polygraph Examination. In the final Medical Examination step, strict medical screen is carried out to ensure that the applicant is medically fit. Thus, these were the steps involved in the process of hiring a police officer.
Peak, K. J. (2010). Justice administration: Police, courts, and corrections management (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.