Physical Design Features in Crime Prevention Kaplan (1978)
Physical Design Features in Crime Prevention Kaplan (1978):
In crime prevention, in order to be able to make a physical design feature, one must understand how a perpetrator thinks. A crime occurs when all the essential components align such as the target, the risks, effort, reward, and place. These are known as the dimensions of crime. A perpetrator will wait for the most opportune moment to carry out an attack. They get a target, for example in a mugging situation; the perpetrator will look for a person whom they thing is most vulnerable. Once the target is acquired, they weigh the risks and judge the amount of effort required for the job. The reward, which is usually almost often uncertain, is the driving factor for the perpetrator.
The features of physical design include territoriality, access and control, target hardening, surveillance and image. Territoriality is defined as having a sense of ownership that may prompt members of a community to notice something unusual. Natural or digital surveillance allows the observation of activity and different areas. Access and control enables members of a certain area or community to have privileged access, for example, only members are allowed into an area or building.
The physical design is aimed at influencing the behaviors of both the community members and the potential perpetrators. The program states that community members should be on the lookout and observant. If they see any unusual or criminal activity, relevant authorities should be notified. Crime opportunity as described is because of target, effort, risk and reward. If the reward is not worth the effort, the offender may decide not to carry out his/ her crime. The best opportunity involves having a target that requires the least effort, the least risk, and a great reward. The issue about institutionalizing of the crime prevention physical design program is wanting. The different communities agree with their activities and intentions but implementation is the biggest issue.
In conclusion, the physical design in crime prevention is aimed at making the community a safer place for resident and visitors alike. There are ways of reducing the number of targets and increasing effort and risk. The program offers ways of reducing crime in communities. The design offers guides to assist in building a safe environment for members of communities to live in a crime free place. Such a program was implemented in Hartford, Oregon, Portland, and Connecticut. The government and other private organizations supported the program. Their failure was due to little long-term plans and little support by the relevant organizations.
MONCURE, L. B., PALKOVITZ, L. H., KAPLAN, H. M., BELL, L. S., CUNNINGHAM, R. K., & Westinghouse Electric Corporation 1911 Jefferson Davis Highway Arlington VA 22202. (1978). CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN - CPTED PROGRAM MANUAL, V 2 - CPTED STRATEGIES AND DIRECTIVES MANUAL. United States.