Various changes have been witnessed in the organizational management of police in the past decades. Most changes are as a result of the technological developments, changes in the policing environment, managerial innovations in private and public sectors, emergence of new types of offences, and changes in public opinion regarding the police. Highlighted herein is the analysis of the organizational management of American police agencies, taking into account the past, present, and future trends and their impacts.
The organizational management of the American system of policing is one of its own kind based on world standards (Maguire, 2011). The local and state police agencies are approximately twenty thousand in the U.S. compared to 461 in Canada, 43 in England, 22 in India, and 8 in Australia. Many of these agencies are loosely connected, with overlapping jurisdictions at various levels of government such federal, state, county, township, and city agencies. Due to variations in functions, type, and size, it is difficult to set up an ideal and standard method of organizational management of the American police agencies.
Traditionally, there was militaristic policing, a management method vastly used in the early 20th century. This style reinforced classic managerial principles such as centralization of command, unambiguous hierarchy, and the span-of-control. Community policing began in 1990s, with community partnerships, problem-solving, and organizational and managerial changes. The managerial change brought about management styles like Total Quality Management which is currently used by police agencies countywide. Computer Comparison Statistics (Compstat) was innovated in 1990s, and enhances the use of technology in the management. Police agencies currently embrace Compstat, as they adopt various sophisticated IT for data tracking on crime and disorder, calls for police service, and police response.
Management Information Technology is currently of immense value to the police departments. This has necessitated the creation of short-term and long-term goals for the use of CIS (computerized information systems). In future, the use of CIS is expected to increase.
Maguire, E. R. (2011). Police: Organization and Management - The American System Of Policing, Variation In Style And Structure, Managing Police Organizations, Information Technologies And The Police. Retrieved 28 March 2012, from http://law.jrank.org/pages/1675/Police-Organization-Management.html