How can Western union and former Soviet Union environmental NGO’S collaborate to improve global environmental conditions?
The West and the former Soviet Union have developed industrial might to a degree which has put the world into a bit of quandary as regards environmental concerns. Former Soviet NGO’s can work to create awareness on cultural and environmental issues and they can also learn a lot from Western NGO’s on these important concerns. However, collaboration between environmental NGO’s such as Greenpeace and other similar Westernized organizations which have experience in managing this field is crucial to the continued sustainable development of the Soviet economy which is still rather ignorant on issues of environmental and social importance. Environmental issues are important, especially when one observes drilling procedures for oil in Russia where environmental concerns are often abandoned without much care for the damage that such oil extraction is causing.
What are the key factors in determining dependency development progress?
Dependency development is determined by a number of factors but is chiefly based on the proper distribution of capitalism and its environs. Dependency theorists argue that developing countries have to reduce their dependence on world markets to enable them to pursue an economic path which can be better suited to their needs. Equal wealth distribution is also important in the sense that if this is not achieved properly, there will always be those who fall behind and will have to access the social security safety net. Individualism is important but collectivization and wealth creation programmes to increase the possibility of wealth distribution is in fact crucial to dependency development as the population must slowly be weaned into self sufficiency. Naturally, development can only be determined through properly assessed tests and progress cannot come all at once. This has to be gradually phased in and assessed for maximum efficiency and not be left to waste but it is also important to reduce dependency on the free market for better economic development.
How does economic progress influence civil society development?
Economic progress is the kernel for a greater interest in the issues which surround us on a daily basis. Naturally when one has to cope with the daily struggles of life to make ends meet, it becomes rather difficult to assess civil society concerns as the focus is more on survival. As economic progress increases and man is liberated into a better standard of living and quality of life, civil society issues become more of a concern and these could range from social issues such as divorce, abortion and welfare to other issues such as the environment and better working conditions. Countries which have seen considerable economic progress over the years have concurrently seen a considerable influx of civil society groups and ideas which have put pressure on governments to address their pressing concerns and issues, chiefly tied to the environment and improved working conditions.
How do international development assistance programs impact economic, social and political development in a transitional economy?
International development is obviously crucial in the economic and social growth of any country. As the world’s economy becomes more diversified and globalized, those countries which depend upon more traditional forms of the economy such as agriculture suffer unduly such as those countries in the Horn of Africa where famine has become rampant. Naturally enough there has been an influx of international development aid into these areas with limited success but if this was not to be the case, the situation would have been much worse. Other transitional economies which have benefited considerably from international development are those in the Balkans where a soviet style planned economy has been completely transformed into one based on services which has had considerable success especially in the tourism area. Naturally, international development programmes are not always the solution as on several occasions, countries which have been receiving substantial amounts of aid end up impoverished just the same as their rulers pocket these riches for themselves and their coterie. However, on the whole international aid is extremely important to assist countries to diversify their economy accordingly.
How does globalization affect human behavior and cultural values?
Globalization is a phenomenon which we have to live with as it has very much become a part of our daily lives. The imposition of a Western style culture based on rampant capitalism and consumerism has undoubtedly affected several parts of the world whose culture was very different. A typical example is China where cultural values have been significantly impacted by the shift to a capitalist and western style economy. Globalization also affects our shopping patterns and has an intrinsic effect on the way we think especially with news which has become a 24/7 event and is practically always on our doorstep. The news media are constantly feeding us stories from their angle which, especially in the United States is often based on rampant consumerism and inbuilt advertising. According to Marshall Mcluchlan, the ‘medium is the message’ and this cannot be less true than in the way the world’s behavior is consistently affected by globalization. Human values are also a crucial factor in the equation as these tend to change and shift according to what’s ‘in’ at that moment in time. Globalized products such as the iPhone and other similar gadgets become must buys for everyone and there is a rampant thirst to acquire them at all costs. The internet is also an important factor to consider when dealing with globalization as it brought about a significant change in our culture and in the way we conduct our lives.
Sachs J (2005); The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time; Penguin Press
Timmons Roberts J (2003); Trouble in Paradise: Globalization and Environmental Crises in Latin America; Routledge
Timmons Roberts J, Hite A (2000); From Modernization to Globalization: Perspectives on Development and Social Change; Wiley Blackwell