1. Antisocial Personality Disorder can be described as an Axis 2 personality disorder distinctive by possessing a pervasive pattern of violation for, and disregard for the rights of that starts at childhood or adolescence and persists into adulthood
2. Mental health professions include clinical social workers, mental health counselors, psychiatric nurses as well as many other professions. These professions often deal with the same disorders and issues; in spite of this, their field of practice differs.
3. Risk factors are conditions that put children at risks of negative outcomes such as crime. Psychological, parental and social risks acting together ensure that a child does not have any route to escape or have any guidance.
4. DSM refers to a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association. DSM integrates five sections os axis, axis 1 contains clinical disorders and Axis 2 contains personality Disorders and Mental Retardation, Axis 3- General Medical Conditions, Axis 4- Psychosocial Stressors and finally Axis 5 that contains Global Assessment of Functioning. Mental disorders are classified in either A, B or C.
5. The criminal act contains either Actus Reus or “the guilty act” and Mens Rea also referred to as the “guilty mind”. They work together because a person cannot be found guilty while his/her brain is innocent.
6. Operant Conditioning is the understanding of behavior and its consequences. Punishment refers to anything that reduces the probability of future responding. Positive denotes something introduced into the environment. Negative explains anything removed from the environment while Reinforcement denotes anything that increases the probability of future responding.
7. A ‘Broken Home’ is a concept borne from prior research in which single parent households were blamed for delinquency and considered as a risk factor. This concept does not an effective measure to predict negative outcomes because it is currently not supported. Only the process of a home can be used to determine negative outcome.
8. The theory purports that people learn to commit deviant acts through interpersonal interactions in the social environment. Criminality is most likely to arise where the number of deviant antisocial messages in the social environment outweighs the pro-social messages.
9. Albert Bandura’s study stated that young children exposed to the deed of aggressive adults showed stronger tendencies to imitate these behaviors. It also stated that family and peers often dominate modeling the behavior in adolescence. Stanley Milgram’s study instructed teachers to administer electric shocks as a way to learn the effects of punishment on learning. Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study stated that loss of individuality in a crowd grants permission to violate laws and norms.
10. Psychopathy is a predictor of risk for future violence. It is an extreme variant of antisocial personality with narcissistic features that has been found to be a particularly robust predictor of violent recidivism. Antisocial Personality Disorder is an Axis II personality disorder distinctive by possessing a pervasive pattern of violation for, and disregard for the rights of that starts at childhood or adolescence and persists into adulthood.
11. In Parental and Family Risk Factors, Baumrind formulates four parental styles. The first is Authoritarian which states rigid and rule-laden households. The second is Permissive which calls for parents not to be tolerant and non-punitive. Authoritative is the third style which tells parents not to respond to their children in a rational manner and have effective communication through reasoned discussions dictated by social controls. The fourth style is Neglecting of children by either being detached or offering minimal responses. The most predictable for negative outcomes is Neglecting followed by Permissive, Authoritarian and finally Authoritative.
12. Empathy can be described as the ability to put oneself in another person’s emotional position. It can be classified as either Affective or Cognitive empathy. Lack of both empathy and remorse is vital to Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder because they cause negative outcomes.
13. Theoretical models can be classified as Psychodynamic, Ethological Perspective, Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis, and Excitation Transfer and Displaced Aggression theories. Situational instigators such as crimes of Obedience, Moral Disengagement are situational risk factors that result to criminal behavior as a response to current environmental contingencies and events.
14. Antisocial Personality Disorder can be described as an Axis 2 personality disorder distinctive by possessing a pervasive pattern of violation for, and disregard for the rights of that starts at childhood or adolescence and persists into adulthood. Psychopathy is a predictor of risk for future violence. It is an extreme variant of antisocial personality with narcissistic features that has been found to be a particularly robust predictor of violent recidivism.
15. Social learning acknowledges the role of the external environment on one’s behavior, but holds that we learn primarily by observing and listening to the people around us – our social environment. Different models were formulated where others were found wanting thus distinguishing each from the other.
16. Biological risk factors include genetics, psycho-physiological, temperament, environmental factors. They are distinct from other factors because certain brain and biochemical abnormalities appear to predispose some children to exhibit higher levels of aggression than their peers.
17. There are three developmental risk factors to be taken into consideration, social, parental and psychological risk factors. In social factors, people have control over their behaviors, but some may be weighed to crime by both internal and external factors since not all suffering from this factors turn into criminals. Parental factors may result into children becoming criminals by both internal and external factors.