Globally poverty has stricken many developing and under developed nations. People are unable to afford their human needs. In many developing countries for example children are unable to enroll and complete basic education, diseases like measles are still causing death and children are still suffering from malnutrition.
The issues which have put poverty on rise world wide are: drug and crime rate, political instability, international debts, investment and trade, climatic changes and globalization, diseases, clean water and sanitation among others. Due to the nature of interrelation of man kind the affected nations and the developed nations have tried to put in place necessary policies to eradicate these extreme effects. The fight against poverty has shown fruits in several sectors like in education where many Africa countries have started offering free primary education through the support of donors
Poverty is the inability of people to afford basic human needs such as health care, nutrition, clean water, shelter and clothing. The absence of this is destitution poverty. On the other hand relative poverty refers to a situation where some people have fewer resources than others in the world. In the world over three million people live on at most $2.50 a day. Over the globe, there are more than forty one countries whose total gross domestic product is much far less than of the seven richest countries. The state of poverty cannot be blamed on the poor people themselves, but, on macro factors beyond their control. Anup (2010)
Issues affecting global poverty:
Crimes and drugs
Drug trafficking is the trade of drugs which involves manufacturing and using of drugs. Many governments over the world have put in place laws to eradicate the use of drugs, due to the effect they have on the economy. The efforts put in place differs a cross nations, but, the international nature of the trade makes it impossible for one nation to eradicate this trade. United Nation Office for Drug Control and Prevention works closely with different nations to combat the drug trade globally. World powerful and developed nations like United States have pushed for aggressive counter drug trafficking across the globe. The effort focuses on interdicting and eradicating drugs operations, source countries and transit zones. (Merril, 2006). They influence other countries to adopt antidrug policies. Despite this effort, it is only a minor percentage of drugs which are intercepted. Harsh drug trafficking policies have forced traders to move their operations to weak jurisdiction countries; this is known as balloon effect. This effect has been widely felt in Latin America as well as central and south Asia where international efforts to curb drugs are focused. The trade has expanded due to international networks and increased consumer market thus increasing poverty index. The war on drugs has led to increased; drug production cost, profitability and consumption. Some countries have shifted focus and have concentrated on lessening harm of drug consumption, affirmative alternatives of drug consumption as well as educating citizens on harm brought by drugs. Their fore many governments are trying to decrease demand for drugs as well as supply. (Merril, 2006).
Drug trade has been a serious constraint to development in mainly developing countries. The use of drugs sets barriers to development through corruption in the public sector and fall of social intuitions, increased crime rate and violence in the community, complicated health problems, diverging youth strength from education and work and skewing economies to money laundering and drug production. (Jacqueline, n.d).
The effect of use of drugs has both monetary and non monetary costs. The monetary costs include costs incurred by government to wipe drugs use (increased number of police, increased prison costs due to drugs jailed criminals) as well as cost to treat drugs users and people harmed by drugs users. The non monetary costs incurred include psychological effect and trauma faced by those harmed by drug users.
Corruption in public sector has led to increased economic stress on the few available public resources. This is very serious in developing countries like Kenya where money donated by developed countries for economic projects is diverted to personal use. This has derailed development in this nations leading to increased poverty. Where public resources are used in drug trade the economy suffers double blow, one productive projects are stopped and the effect of use of drugs to the citizens. The harm to the economy is increasingly felt in cases where the government had adopted external debt financing. The citizens are forced to pay for the acquired loans which they never benefited. Only few people benefit out of drug trade, this means that income inequalities keep on raising hence many citizens cannot afford basic needs. (Jacqueline, n.d)
Those who use drugs suffer from complicated heath problems bringing stress to the public health sector. This means that the government has to foregoes development project and increase investment in the health sector.
The solution to curb drugs is through tough policies educating citizens on the effects of drugs as well as rehabilitating drug addicts.
The fight of drugs needs cooperation from all nations. This is why policies from one nation cannot eradicate drugs use.
Political instability describes a scenario where the government cannot fully enforce law and order. It occurs when military overthrow democratically elected governments or people rebel and demonstrate against the government due to lack of faith in its policies. Political instability has been felt in developing countries over years and is currently being felt in the Arabs countries.
In sub-Saharan Africa the main cause of political instability is election malpractices. The incumbent presidents bribe voters and make use of state machinery in campaigns. Others cling to power even after the opposition leaders win elections this make citizens to engage in demonstration. Many politicians engage in hate speech during campaigns which resort into tribal clashes. (Lae, 2003).
It is the work of the government to plan on how resources in a nation will be allocated and distributed. The government is entitled to put in place macro economic policies to increase investment and reduce poverty. Unstable governments do not have able time to draft and implement these policies.
To begin with, political instability leads to decreased gross domestic product. Most of the people in country live in fear and do not fully engage in productive activities. Many people are displaced and their property is destroyed. These people cannot afford food or any basic need. Many industries are closed or only few people can come to work. This leads to decreased output.
Political instability distorts effective allocation of resources globally. This is because of increased number of refugees and internally displaced people who attract international attention. The unstable governments are forced to allocate a lot of its resources to provide basic needs of internally displaced people. In addition foreign nations are forced to donate funds to cater for refugees. The unstable governments increase their expenditure in maintaining law and order due to increased insecurity. This has the indication that government allocation on development projects is decreased, thus slowing the rate of development leading to increased poverty.
Political instability may lead to increased corruption where government uses public funds to bribe influential people to help them regain control of the country.
Many students may drop from school due to violence this disrupts development of required human capital required for development.
Political instability deepens rifts between different communities supporting different leaders. The differences may be reinforced by religion. These tribes may result into violence which brings a bout long-term mistrust, fear grievance and hatred. This increases arm trade in a country increasing risk of war and this scares investors. (Lae, 2003).
Political instability affect the flow of foreign capital required to break vicious levels of poverty in developing country. No foreign investor can risk investing in politically unstable nation due to fear of losses associated with political violence. Decreased foreign investment leads to increased unemployment and consequently increased poverty. It also leads to scarcity of essential goods and services in country. (Lae, 2003).
Regional cooperation; bordering countries should form trade blocks to increase regional development and peace. They should put in place rules to guide solving political instability. Increased interrelationship between nations leads to increased concern of regional peace.
International standards rules should be put in place to govern election. For example foreign election observers should be involved in election to help local election officers to carry out transparent elections.
International courts should be used to sue leaders who engage in acts against humanity to win elections. This is because local judiciary my not be effective due to local influence of such leaders. According to the united state conference of catholic bishops, governments which cling into power against will of citizens should be internationally put under pressure to resign. This is because in security in one country has effect in the whole globe due to economic interrelation. All stable countries: should support regional peace keepers and United Nations, support reconciliation programmes together with human rights groups and local government and increase their financial support on development projects in countries struggling from political instability and conflicts.
Countries should try to harvest alternative sources of fuel to avoid the escalating oil prices. This will help decrease cost of production hence decrease the price of goods and services in a country.
International policies and foreign involvement in a countries local affair may not bring high levels of stability due to the hidden motives which may worsen the situation.
Global warming and climatic change
Changes in climate pose great challenge in 21st century in attempt to minimize global poverty and enhance development. Climatic changes leads to the problems of food growing, this renders many poorer and in hunger. Agricultural productivity is highly affected by extreme weather conditions. Studies carried out by researchers from Purdue University indicated that variations in climatic conditions can increase the cost of staple foods. It also showed that global warming can increase the intensity of radiations from the sun, floods and drought in most parts of the world.
The earth’s temperatures are increasing as a result of increases green house gases. Global warming reduces the natural rate of replenishment of the natural systems. The world weather patterns have changed with increased extremities in temperature. Global warming and climatic conditions are caused by several factors. Firstly, it is caused by global dimming. Global dimming involves air pollutants emitted in to the atmosphere absorbing heat from the sun, consequently more energy is trapped in air. This has led to increased temperatures in the earth surface. Anup (2011).
A lot needs to be done to address the issue of climate change and global warming. This is because its impacts on increasing the global poverty. Climatic change results to food shortages. Changes in climate would result to occurrence of new diseases and out-break of new pest that would reduce productivity.(lael, abigail and nigel, 2009). The governments invests heavily in provision of food for the citizens, this reduces the rate of development and increases the number of the poor. In many countries, a greater percentage of the population is affected by extreme weather conditions. This have been indicated by a study carried by researchers from Purdue university, it was found out that the population entering poverty due to extreme drought was high. In Mexico, Zambia and Bangladesh, it was 1.8%, 4.6% and 1.4% respectively.
The government is faced with a lot of challenges due to climatic changes that have resulted to shortage of water in many parts of the world.
The governments of nations lag behind in developments as they invest a lot in health. (Gardner, 2009).
Heavy rain falls and other extreme weather changes such as tornados, cause great damage to property. Increase in sea levels; pose danger to the dense populated areas of south East Asia, Bangladesh and some African coasts. Occurrence of the extreme conditions leaves many people poorer and in devastated conditions. People’s dependence on the government increase, this is because those who lose their property can no longer sustain themselves.
The issue of climatic changes and global warming affects the entire world population and needs to be addresses at national and international levels. At the international level, intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPPC) was established to assess the knowledge of science behind global warming. In addressing poverty, the issue of climatic should be prioritized when addressing the issue of poverty reduction. (Gardner, 2009).
It is recommendable to put early mechanisms that economical to address the issues of global warming and climatic change. This can be done by introducing drought resistance crops to boost food security in drought prone areas, raising homes to reduce effect of flooding and to plant trees along coastal regions. It is advisable to plan carefully and seek assistance to overcome poverty. In addition, comprehensive legislation regarding climatic conservation should be fully enacted and implemented.
Many developing countries acquire loans from developed nations to initiate development project so as to break vicious levels of poverty. The developing nations thus repay the principle amount together with interests. Many of the acquired loans are never used for the intended purposes due to corruption of top government officials. This has made it impossible for the countries to progress as taxpayers money is used to repay loans which were embezzled. New transparent government find difficult times in repaying this loans and same time invest to reduce poverty.
To rescue dying poor citizens from these countries, developed countries should increasingly support poor countries through donations and grants to initiate development projects. The developed nation should follow up loans given to poor nations to make sure that they were invested for the agreed reason. In addition to this a global community should be used to establish debt sovereign work out mechanism. This body can be helping in ensuring that state insolvency is worked out in transparent and orderly manner.
Trade and investment
International trade creates market for developing countries products which cannot be bought locally due to inadequate demand. Many developing countries external trade has been adversely affected by financial crisis, and increased fuel prices. Developing countries are trying to enhance their markets and fight poverty through external trade but they face the stabling blocks of decreased investment, remittances and demand for their products. This means that they will take long to restore their previous state than developed nation.
The market share of developing countries is on rise but its size is still not up to the required threshold for development. The lack of wide infrastructure as well as overreliance on primary products presents the greatest problem to expanding their market share globally.
Developing countries like sub Saharan Africa are facing harsh tariffs to compete developed nations. The programmes designed to favor the Africa products exports are too complicated to be effectively used. Wealthy nation offer agricultural subsidies to farmers in their countries to give them competitive e advantage over African farmers. These make farmers from developed countries to over produce and push market prices down wards. (Issues affecting global poverty, 2010).
Economic growth and development need to be driven by trade and investment to be sustainable. Therefore developed nations should address the trade imbalances to streamline international trade. Foreign investors should increase their capital inflows to Africa to break vicious circles of poverty.
It is also critical for developed nations to help African nations in addressing the supply side constraints. In addition African countries should strengthen their regional economic trade blocks to increase their bargaining power internationally.
Many people die of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. This diseases are treatable, however many people die from them. (Mathew and Alimuddin, 2003) These diseases have great implications in poor countries in sub Saharan Africa. Malaria claims 90% of the deaths in this region, while HIV/AIDs accounts for two-thirds of those living with the disease. (Issues affecting global poverty,2010)
The economic impacts are so severe, with huge budgets set aside for fighting against diseases. The large human resource is threatened by the HIV pandemic. Industries and governments lose their workers. Most families anguish in poverty after lose of their breadwinners.
It is possible to measure the economical impacts of these diseases in terms of the resource allocation to deal with the prevention and treatment of the diseases. Governments provide medicine that is subsidized to be affordable to everyone. This strain the budget with more resources allocated for the healthy sector. The infected individuals become unproductive and this increases dependence ratios, thus increasing the level of poverty.
The treatment of these diseases should be affordable and accessible to all peoples. About four million people receive HIV medications per year compared to fifty thousand in the year 2002.(Issues affecting global poverty,2010). Efforts should be made to reduce the alarming increase in the rate of spread of these diseases. This can be done through provision of malaria nets to the poor and ensuring pregnant mothers do not infect their children with HIV/AID
Clean water and sanitation
Clean water and adequate sanitation are essential for ending poverty in many countries. To end diseases and un-ending poverty in many poor countries, clean water and adequate sanitation facilities are essential. About 4,100 children succumb to diarrhea annually in poor countries. (Issues affecting global poverty, 2010). This is as a result of deteriorated hygiene and poor sanitation.
The implication of this is duplicated in the high mortality rate and increased school drop outs. The governments incur the cost of loosing potential human resources necessary for national economic development. It is also has negative implication on poor health of the citizens.
Many lives of the poor can be transformed by having accessible and clean water for drinking. It can also be achieved by the provision of adequate sanitary facilities. This can help to reduce child mortality rates and reduce the work load for girls to attend school. Henry(2008).
It is wise to invest in provision of clean water and sanitation as it helps in saving a lot in the long run. Other benefits of providing clean water and sanitation facilities would be cutting down costs on health care, increasing productivity and decrease national expenditures in health care provision.
Poverty has been a treat to man kind since time immemorial. Globally issues affecting poverty include The issues which have put poverty on rise world wide are: drug and crime rate, political instability, international debts, investment and trade, climatic changes and globalization, diseases, clean water and sanitation among others.
Globally policies have been put in place to elevate poverty. These policies include legislation against drug trafficking, evening of trade imbalances, climate conservation measures, elections policies regional integration among other policies.
These policies have helped to reduce poverty level globally but not to a great extend due to persistent corruption in developed nation, lack of political will and developed nations failure to keep promises.
Gardner E.K (2009). Climate change could deepen poverty in developing countries. Science
Daily Aug. 21, 2009
Jacqueline M.(n.d). economic issues and policy
Lael B, Abigail J and Nigel P (2009).Climate change and global poverty: a billion lives in the
balance. Washington: Brookings institutions
Lae Braider (2003). The other war: global poverty and millennium challenge account.
Mathew G. and Alimuddin Z. (2003). The return of the white plague: global poverty and new
Mirrill S.(2006). Drugs and development: The global impact of drug use and trafficking on social
and economic developmentInternational journal of drug policy. Vol:19-6
Issues affecting global poverty (2010). Retrieved from http://www.one.org/us/issues/ accesses
(12 march, 2011).