AMERICAN LITERATURE AFTER 1865
American culture is specific because Americans as a nation did not exist before 1776, but the art is being created almost the same after leaving the first free people in the New World. American culture has bypassed the Middle Ages, Baroque and Renaissance, but is nevertheless very much emphasized in relation to world literature.
Period of civil war that has engulfed the American nation has brought with it many of the reforms except political. People have been shaken by war and suffering like finally a reality. No embellishment, no fantasy. The period between 1865 and 1914 in American literature indicates a period of realism.Ipak should be noted that realism in American literature do not exclusively for these fifty years, but exceeds 20 modernism life and affects both writers danasnjice. When talking about perod between in 1865. And in 1914. more accurate to speak of realism, not a realism because realism writers could not agree on a single definition and psychology of the route. Nevertheless we can extract the features specific to this direction, namely that the authors writing about the usual things, those that occur on a daily basis. In his best works are pragmatic realists, inclined to experiment and above all democratic minded. The creator of the manifesto of realism tells how the art show the true face of American society only when the plain, "little" man becomes the main character works as literature and not accessible to the rich. American realists put the city at the center of his work, which is mainly Chicago, which has developed to such an extent that he was able to carry the burden of that time. Emphasis is placed on the character of the individual who actually shows that common and usual for the entire society. Naturalism in the late 19th century under the influence of Europeans Darwin and Zola. Naturalists are full of anger towards the center, the works express his anger. Darwin supports the notion that life is a struggle in which only the strongest surviving and best adapted. According to the realist's no use to fight in life because everything is predetermined. Mark Twain is one of the most important representatives of American realism. In his work, Twain shows her romantically and realistic person. Romantically in his work comes from his childhood and the period when he enjoyed the tranquility of your home. Twain soon live great tragedy, he realizes that life is not ideal, so the majority of his work is very critical and a lot of anger related to imperialism and exploitation of people. Twain puts his characters into the center of the novel, and they become the agents of action simply because they put in a position to choose between the two. Twain's language is very exact and poetic, and the works of the author present pogatstvo languages and variety of the American South. Jamie Henry is a writer who is in a lot different from other American realists. Yet realists was similar in that it is with a lot of disrespectful pisnja for the fact that his call for the writer considered the most important in the world. James is through writing and research tried to uncover the mysteries of the human mind, and write the history of mankind's consciousness. James was fond of experimentation with the angle of seeing and epiphany. A situation is depicted in several ways so as the same event was heard several characters. James in American literature introduced new characters and themes, and thus encapsulates the defining story of American literature. Since a large part of his life in Europe, James tried to negotiate between two worlds, new and old. New World-America depicted as innocent and naive creature, even as an amateur, while Evripa displayed as experienced, but tough. Crane and London are the most important representatives of American naturalism. These writers are full of anger and rage toward the middle of life and that they are not pampered. Both of them spoke as they were mercilessly mravio life, and London society is prhvatalo for opinions which are kept. These writers have argued for the application of Darwin's point of view on the relentlessness of life. Cray has claimed the life of relentless. Everything that happens is the result of circumstances and this guy can not do anything. According to him the courage prihvaliti zovot the way it is and deal with it. Jack London consider it as life merciless struggle for survival and compares it to a jungle where only the strongest survive.
This period of American literature left a large footprint and impact. Literature of the 20th century includes two main directions: modernism and postmodernism. Both of these directions are separated from the realism that reigned in the 19th century, where the reader is usually omniscient and objective story. Now the characters are quite subjective and turning his eyes from the outer reality to inner states of consciousness at the same time very often relying on the technique of "avalanche of thoughts" as they did James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. In both of these directions are analyzed fragments of the stories and characters. Poetic features of this period are innovations in style, free verse Distribution area, and discover the writer's inner feelings. Main interest in this literature is moving away from the writer himself techniques like A visual poetry, collage, and exposure to the appearance of unrelated words / sentences. The best works of modernism technic the means through which the reader to bear new questions.
In addition, we have a post-modern literature. Most authors believe that postmodern begins after World War II, although many of the start date of his death and take two modernist writer Virginia Woolf and James Joyce. During this period, she felt effects of atomic bombing, the Holocaust, the struggle for basic human rights and computer technology
Postmodernism is based on the inner world of the characters, but not the internal conflict than voluntarily demolished and self-critical characters in his novels that describe Vladimir Nabokov, Vladimir Sorokin, John Barth, Thomas Pynchon, and Julian Barnes. Literature of this period is not opposed to modernism than is actually an extension of its primarily by the style that is self-conscious and ironic. The modernist tendency to describe the interior of a person who is at war with it no longer exists, the characters are far mediators and judges who show us the roots of postmodern thought. All this is reminiscent of the consciousness of realism in 19th century. Today's novels can be compared with those of Mark Twain and the Fitzgerald and his contemporaries.
There are many theories by which we can observe the relationship between literary era. There is a relationship between transnational turn (which is itself a way of rethinking literature, not only the U.S. but also others) to the study of literature and - so to say - much more global approach, especially the planet and immigration cultures. As an example we can take Melville's Moby Dick, which is now studied all the critical texts that deal with changing the image ocean of those romantic, mysterious, impenetrable to those who epitomizes the danger, exploitation, criticism, especially whaling, which is in the center of the novel. On the other hand, is now in the study of American literature, more attention is paid to sexual theories. As is well known, 70-80-ei brought the rise of gender studies with great success, while the 90-kvijer adopted the so-called theory that is closely based on the homosexual and homoerotic models of discourse, a project that he sees himself as the one who wants to disrupt in any form.
However, post-post-modern American reality is reflected in a peculiar manner when it comes to different positions in the American Academy of American literature now. The debate is conducted among university professors. Thus, one of the leading scholars of literature, not only at Harvard today, but also at elsewhere, Homi Bhabha, when observing the history of American literature now emphasizes a different perspective. For him, when it comes to the modern approach to the study of American literature, the most significant 80`-90`, which have brought many intellectual movements in American universities as an expression of post-colonialism in America. A movement that was to the left, and was known as an alternative political movement as policy differences as part of the feminist movement at the time, cultural studies, part of the gay and studies, post-structuralism or part and something that is often described as post-postmodernism. Now it's hard to figure out what these different movements have in common, says Homi Bhabha, because they all contain different constituents, concept, concepts, customs and history. However, in his view, they see themselves as politically progressive, all kind of shadow of Marxism and Marxist traditions, but what makes it different from the earliest school of neo-colonial Marxism is that much less likely to believe in deterministic epistemology and dialectic, Marx considered Homi Bhabha. All these movements are interested in the issues of culture, but culture as part of the political economy.
Questions, however, remain as the most beneficial present and future challenge for Harvard researchers and for us, but it seems to be slowly discerned some answers. We cannot say that the epistemological pluralism of our age multiplies the theory of art, which in turn generate audit literary canon, the anthology that embody them, and continue the debate about who the important American writers and how to read and reflect. Is not it true that the traditional canon, as proclaimed elitist, slowly giving way to less familiar texts.
Gray, Richard J. A History of American Literature. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2004. Print.
Jameson, Fredric. Postmodernism, Or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham: Duke University Press, 1991. Print.
Perkins, George B, Barbara Perkins, and Phillip Leininger. Benét's Reader's Encyclopedia of American Literature. New York, NY: HarperCollinsPublishers, 1991. Print.
"Realism in American Literature." Washington State University - Pullman, Washington. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 July 2013.
Said, Edward W, Homi K. Bhabha, and W J. T. Mitchell. Edward Said: Continuing the Conversation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. Print.