Pop culture of the 60s that originated in Britain and spread to US followed a string of philosophical and theoretical movement turning into mass culture. Pop culture has had many proponents in fashion, music and literature as well as numerous characteristic features. Studying the 60’s fashion design trends in the areas of textile, jewellery and fashion is compared and contrasted to today’s latest designs. The impact and influence of the pop culture is greatly pronounced for specific flamboyance and symbols, practices. Together this implies a vibrant extrovert movement which is indicated from hippy culture, motifs, and images which changing and expressing over communication becomes a highlight of the decadal movements to present day fashion trend and designs. The dissertation study explores the concept of pop art and how it is influencing or has a major impact on modern art and artists. The study includes data from secondary sources with research on pop art, its influence and on designers in textile, jewellery and fashion explored.
Origin’s of the 60’s pop culture
Pop culture is a wide term signifying the growth and opulence associated with the movement of youngster’s and a generation during the 1950’s. There is the idea that the influence on art by this movement could have led to different effects on jewellery, textile and fashion art designs. Evidently a number of influences do not constitute the society culture but what is predominantly accepted and utilized or agreed upon and in particular which are put in practice. The pop culture in UK in the 1950s shows dramatic changes from the past ideologies, norms and custom of society in UK. In a break-away sort of changes, the young people became more stylized and made their custom according to a new set of like’s and dislike’s. The origins of this own identity and marked revolution in fashion, clothing, music etc started with fact that post war change in income and social status was prominent and positive. With more wealth to spare youngsters accepted to wear fashion which included following fashion which had a new mix of colours, with dramatic art and which was certainly different from one which was being followed in those times.
During this time, the young people are becoming more adventurous and ever more confident of showing a controversial look even though it required drastic changes in their fashion attire. They would wear short dresses and skirts showing their legs (random history 2009). This was different from 1950’s where skirts were longer. Young girls now dressed more daringly as they were not afraid to show skin. People also become open minded about sex. An invention in birth control, sex which is more openly shown in movies, musicals and with fashion, reveals a kind of prevailing revolution. The faster moving space race, curiosity for other cultures, The Vietnam War and Woman’s Liberation Movement were some of events, ideas and thoughts that changed fashion forever during these times. In the 60’s, the position of pop culture was controversial, though society is more open-minded with the concept today.
As a counter- culture which is more deeply rooted in philosophy than style, the reason given was pursuit of success and life’s more meaningful experiences on offer. Quoting literally the 60’s became quite a party theme. The memory of 1960’s is reduced to a set of images, phrases and styles which is easier to replicate as well as sound and slogan is mixed with high school rallies and skits. These were the insight into idea of pop, influence of different media as well as being influenced by world events of that time. The youth was leader of fashion in as much as they were getting ahead with their concepts of freedom, choice and exploration. People were travelling more; there was more curiosity to other cultures as well as new designs of fashion like oriental looks, African and Middle Eastern looks while musicians such as Jimi Hendrix led a population to hippie and ethnic clothing and Beatles who gave a mod-style to clothing as well as music. Thus, the fields of art like music, clothing, attire, institutions were influenced by art and new philosophy these were also impressed with the world events of 1960’s and later.
People cannot resist their innate need to enhance individual sovereignty via a media culture and power to influence cultural environment. Learning to read, and resist socio-cultural manipulation is empowering to individual in relation to dominant forms of media and culture. Media products like radio, television and film offer materials to forge our identities, sense of selfhood, class, nationality and sexuality. It transforms or differentiates ‘us’ from ‘them’. Our views of world around us, how we insert ourselves into a world culture, idea of who has power and legitimate power of forces instil person with good from bad etc. Consequently a number of questions also arise that if the 60’s were influential in this and purposeful to a particular philosophy, then their ability to showcase fashion must have had a positive effect on art. The question of pop effect on art can be considered in the light of cultural studies and case studies of growth of pop culture in USA to a hippie movement. But before going ahead one must look into the origins of cultural affiliations in 60’s and before.
Legacy view of the pop culture indicates a start of philosophies being applied since the 1840’s in US. The theory of few groups of people calling themselves transcendentalists; sought truth in nature and pursue lives removed from materialism, meaningless work and often corrupted values. Henry David Thoreau cultivated this concept while retreating to Massachusetts. He observed that most men live lives of quiet desperation. While in the 1850s proponent of concept of free love used to blast the hypocrisy of contemporary marriage and while so also urged people to give emotional and sexual feelings a free rein. These were inspired by Charles Fourier’s doctrine of passion attractions and also Emanuel Swedenborg idea of conjugal love where the reformers have argued for passions being essentially good and indulging than denying. The idea of physical illness and physical dissatisfaction was created from instincts be repressed by society demand and not otherwise. Applications included to pursuit of romantic and sexual passions to natural ends, and form of divorce, polyandry, polygamy were all legitimate outcomes. Mary Gove and Thomas Low Nichols were prominent spokespersons for this philosophy. Fifty years later, few proponents of artists and architects took to elaboration of more authentic expression – real experience and rediscover primal essence beneath Victorian politeness. They prospered the craftsman to invest in his work - his creative intellect, his physical labour, even his soul. In 1920s, the critics condemning emptiness of American society came forth. Sinclair Lewis had mocked materialism and success mania, H L Mencken attacked moral smugness and intellectual shallowness and cultural critics who fled to Europe as they claimed to have found a less materialistic and intellectually sterile society. This quest was interrupted by the Depression and World War II.
But during the 1950s, a group of cultural critics resumed their search in deeper experience in San Francisco’s North Beach and New York’s Greenwich Village. The Beats, much like Thoreau a century earlier, ignored politics and shunned social activism. They placed a high value to personal fulfilment and developed theories for art that did emphasize expression over communication, in their terms it was important that artists explore and express themselves not that audiences understand or get influenced by a work. Images, styles, music, and slogans are cheered and persist much longer.
With the pursuit of the roaring 1960s one must fathom the different aspects of the movement of counter culture from the number of case studies that bring forth the meaning, form and substance to the movement. In this regard several case studies can be noted. As a slogan the first case study that is given is that of flower power. As a motif implying non violent philosophy it came across much progressive views in late 60s and 70s. It was initially against war happening in Vietnam, South East Asia. All citizens who were against the war were called hippies who included flowers as a motif of love and peace. Their culture routinely shows their dress sense, wearing clothes with flower motifs and real flower in their hair without makeup. Clothes which are worn are large indicative of “freedom of hippies” and use of natural colours. The styles of dresses included tie-dye paisley prints and bell-bottom jeans. With the help of flower power one can understand the basic necessity of philosophy to end violence, breed a sense of communal harmony and leverage on the understanding through flamboyant display of like minded dresses, clothing and pervading spirit of affection using the symbols. ( Hubpages 2013)
Another case study was the fight for rights in 1960s by women. Some of the women made a trash can in which they would throw objects. Like heels, hair curlers, bras, girdles and magazines. These types of feminist women (Weston 2014) were inclined to wear pants, clothing which was not overtly figure-hugging as also usually wore clothes not necessarily for women. Few women started to burn bras which became popular amongst these feminists. Similarly using this case study one can notice the growing avarice to everything common and a stalemate kind of situation for women empowerment. Where they think that women feminists ( Marshall 2008) lose out to the movement of counter culture with no appeal to their fashion, they tend to change role in the fashion garments and clothing to show rebelliousness and chance of survival on their own. ( Monet Mar, Sept 2014)
The counter culture began as a breed of movement before popular culture and some salient aspects of the progression to popular culture are noticed. It was mainly a reaction against the conservative government, social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatism of the Cold War period, and the US Government's extensive military intervention in Vietnam. It was called the new left mainly comprising middle class students and founded in University of Michigan in 1960. Release of their statement called Port Huron statement indicated the criticism of lack of individual freedoms; colleges were natural base to promote social change and protested lack of student freedoms (bostrom 2001). The dress code, course requirements, discrimination of fraternities and admissions was evident and also included student anti-war movement. Although popular it was not popular culture and began to wither. They organized a free speech movement in Berkeley in 1964 using sit-ins and taking over college buildings to protest war. The movement floated a young international party called “Yippies”, with a democratic national convention in 1968 in Chicago for anti-war protests which eventually faced police brutality. The main event or social meet for the group was at New York in Bethel. This was “Woodstock”, a music festival attended by 500,000 people on August 18-19, 1969 featuring 32 music groups and artists. Thus the progression to popular culture came about by end of 60s in form of a number of breakaway philosophies where the individual protests against war gave sentiment to art and was prominent in many ways. The characteristic features included architecture, literature, and music.
Architecture in popular culture was evidenced in a refined modernism with the underpinnings of the desire for a modern age, inspiring the artist to know the unknown in their own way as well as experience in own particular way. A leading name in pop art was Andy Warhol. The literature of the period of popular culture was about expressed problems evidenced in societal interactions, examples have been To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath, The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan, Catch 22 by Joseph Heller and One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest by Ken Kesey.
The generation of the 60’s in USA did not adopt the popular culture in terms of radiating the concepts and symbols to fruition in a similar sense but different in entirety. The American literature, music was impressed with the people accepting new forms of expression while the fashion and design trends are becoming the most important medium of lasting and longetivity of communication of a mass culture which is mostly impacting a whole country not just a state or few groups of people.
This has been exemplified for Hallowell writing about literature in 60’s as a journalism which focussed on objectivity of reporting and observations of writer. New style of writing would inspire attempts that can classify it – creative non-fiction, non-fiction novel, literary journalism, gonzo journalism and new journalism had been some parts of the movement.
Design and fashion novelties since 60’s have become more aware of people mass movement in favour. These fashion design trends and fashionable challenges have featured characteristic changes levelling most memorable changes and extending fashion content to this day. Mid 60’s professed short skirts with costume type outfits of hippies, clothing has a new meaning on new lines, colours and reflecting vibrant optimism with idealistic yearning on a new basis for egalitarian society. The flamboyant designs of fashion in 60 are dominated by young people and popular culture was evidently also backed by a number of theological and theoretical backgrounds. These aspects gave rise to an American Dream, for the first time in American History. It is one of the many movements for spiritual values and self fulfilment without material success. This dream was an experience to live like a free spirit, embracing new ideas and reaching out to a better world. This is explored in more detail in the literary novels, nonfiction books of the popular culture. The concept has become more ingrained with family sitcoms, catalogues, and children’s tales. Popular imagination suggests it is massive ideological machinery and comes forth in cultural discussion. This concept among the vast generation of people who wanted to change the course of their future can be traced to the past 60s era. Jay Stevens in name of technological efficiency and rationality the world of mysticism opened up. This has been evident from surreal superheroes, rock music, and success of rebellious role models like James dean and Marlon Brando. Longing for mythical figures, survival of fittest and shift to self indulging narcissistic nature have been three factors crucial in sociology of movement from the 60s. (Retro planet 2010)
Some of characteristic features of the movement are notable;
- Racial discrimination was evident since 1968 in America and Italy.
- New subcultures and movements like New Left, Civil rights, anti-war, feminist and gay right movement, child poverty, homeless and environmental protection groups.
- There is evidence of greater participation in individualism, entrepreneurialism and doing your own thing.
- A growth of young people’s influence with the youth subculture increasing impact to society, dictating taste in fashion, music etc.
- Advancements in technology like television, transistor radios, electronic synthesizer’s, telephone systems, jet travel, diesel and electric locomotives, refrigerators and washing machines, contraceptive pills etc.
- Advent of television as the universal presence bringing `spectacle' as an integral part of the interface between life and leisure.
- Increasing international cultural exchange, espresso machines Italy, discos from France, theatrical innovation in Britain and America.
- Massive improvements in material life, in backward areas this was arrival of electricity, with inside lavatories and properly equipped bathrooms.
- Greater upheavals from race, class and family relationships.
- Permissiveness of a general sexual liberation, of striking changes in public and private morals leading to a new frankness, openness, and indeed honesty in personal relations and modes of expression.
- Altogether new means and modes of self –presentation from old ones and partaking better show from natural attribute of human body.
- Participatory and uninhibited popular culture with central component rock music, with a universal language.
- Elitist thought associated with structuralists and post-structuralists for e.g. Barthes, Foucault, Althusser and Marshall McLuhan and culture in pop art, conceptual art, concrete poetry and ‘chance’ being privileged in literature, art and music.
- Increase of measured judgement conceptually genuine liberal tolerance and willingness to accommodate to the new subcultures, permitting them to permeate and transform society.
- Existence of elements of extreme reactions, various police forces and also religious bodies.
- Civil and religious rights, American urban riot in 1965, events of 1968-69, new feminism and beginnings of gay liberation.
- Multicultural society’s concept which would prove instrumental in legacy of Cultural Revolution and as a mini-renaissance of 1958-74.
Pop art and artists influence on textile, fashion and jewellery design is partly enhanced using the current cultural context and culture movement - symbols and motifs. Partly fashion gained from the mass movement which was followed and endorsed by young people. This again was a limiting development to which numerous additional events and happenings created reason and capacity to show as garments and clothing attire. Ascertaining whether the fashion was only for few years or took shape to decadal growth is unprecedented and difficult. The fashion designs for jewellery and textile are notably those of movement while the contrast with present day fashion is inextricably woven into the breadth of society, fashionable presence and a media culture.
Fashion and Textile production in 21st century is based on the concept of a ‘fashion system’. This is the social and cultural phenomenon from business, arts and crafts, production and consumption of a contemporary fashion. This involves all factors involved from entire process of fashion change. Some are intrinsic, others more in novelty, and external. Trendsetters play role like Madonna, Princess of Wales, Diana; as does change in lifestyle and music. Fashionability allows fashion industry to grow further which rests on premise of being diverse and flexible to consumer desire gratification. Fashion is one other side a complex social event with motives, identity, group, emulation of leaders and rebellion to conformity.
Modern day fashion manufacturing changes come from many characteristic features and developments in 21st century. This includes the fact that fashion designers who have had critical acclaim are very few in number and vast majority of the fashion designers remain in anonymity.
Use of traditional designs and methods from sketching paper to draping fabrics on mannequins have become less in popularity and replaced by the use of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing. Only a few innovative designers produce the best high quality fashion while the majority produce normal to contemporary fashion. Innovations in manufacturing have led to garment production in many sizes. Computer programming has allowed clothes of every kind and to fit for every size as well. Pattern making a highly skilled profession has been helped by the fashion industry innovation while the fabric cutting is being enabled using high intensity lasers from fashion designers choice.
Assembled garments which have been prepared are also provided with the final stage of production which is finishing. The inclusion of the method was earlier crude but now with the help of sophisticated programs and machinery packaging is becoming an industry in itself! Fashion finishing includes decorative elements, buttons and buttonholes, hooks and eyes, snaps and fasteners, brand name labels as well as specific fibre content, and country of manufacture as well.
The manufacture and sale of accessories like shoes, underwear and handbags is close ally of fashion industry. With garments production is ranging from expensive to inexpensive mass items with production tending to move to lower wage environments. High end accessories productions like handbags are teeming with confrontation from counterfeit goods and use of inferior goods as against authentic goods.
Imitation goods trade has become illegal with many new international agreements. This is also burgeoning out of control. The brand conscious manufactures are costing this development into many millions of dollars with much loss annually.
The research study on pop art influence on modern art is studied in realm of research statement “impact on modern art by pop art is influenced” is studied. The statement is studied for dramatic changes or upheaval in fashion design. The research statement is further studied using data from original sources over internet, books and publications. The subject of research study is more discovered and proper placed with validity and scope of research in mind while using such data.
The research design is descriptive type. Under descriptive research, also known as statistical research, it would describe data, features and qualities of the population or event under study. Descriptive research would answer the question of exactly who, what, where, when and how of a particular event. The instrumentation used for research study under research design is flawless data collection alongside the use of proper case study methods.
The research sources are secondary data from publications, news sources, the web and internet. Data sources provide the necessary impetus to validate the quality and quantity of detail which proves the statement with enough information as needed. Data supports the research study leading to proper unbiased, verifiable and effective findings. The data quality and sources are authentic and lead to making rightful conclusions. Use of research data has been robust so as to minimize errors and enhance quality of conclusion from detailed analysis.
Research is free from bias from researcher, data specifications as the study partakes evident past data in recognition, interviews, research surveys etc. The bias could lead to error in making conclusion and is not necessarily the best method to follow in scientific research. Clarity and sustainability of arguments need unbiased reporting and data gathering.
The quality of jewellery design upgraded from conservative designs in art to a variety of styles. Conservative necklace design had earlier corresponded to simple design style of necklaces. By turning into costume design with bold colours jewellery became much more ingrained for a specific outfit or costume worn by customer. In other words, costume jewellery or fake/junk/fashion/fallalery for ornamentation to complement style of garment as opposed to “real” fine jewellery is therefore regarded to be a collectible, keep stake and an investment. Originally jewellery design in costume jewellery utilized cheap simulated gemstones being set in silver, brass or nickel. Rhinestones had become downgraded in quality during depression years 1938 -45 to meet production costs. During this time, silver was usually invoked into costume jewellery design due to components in base metal especially in war production and also since silver produced and can be found easily in vintage marketplace today. Whereas pop culture influenced jewellery design in this way, the modern day jewellery uses a wide range of materials in costume jewellery. High end crystals, diamonds, and precious stones are used, metals like gold and silver plated brass, sometimes vermeil and sterling silver is also used. Low priced jewellery outside US usually has lead while some jewellery pieces would include plastic, acrylic or leather (vintagefashionguild 2010)
The jewellery design in times from 1935 to 1960 included two periods. Retro period and the art modern period. During retro period, the jewellery design before 60s was distinct American look and Schiffer has said the following were the characteristic features;
- Glamorous elegance with sophistication
- Flowers included with sunburst designs in a Hollywood flair
- Use of moonstones, military influence, horse motifs, and ballerinas
- Plastic jewellery including Bakelite
After the period ending 1945, the second period of jewellery design began which included art modern period of more tailored style of 1960s. This costume jewellery design was more capable of stylish designs of following features;
- Bolder and lavish jewellery
- Large size bracelets in stones topaz, Jade/opal, citrine
- Christmas tree pins , other pins and similar jewellery
Coco Chanel has popularized the faux jewellery design as fashion designer while Kenneth Jay Lane since 60s has created unique jewellery for Jackie Onassis, Elizabeth Taylor, Diana Vreeland and Audrey Hepburn. With more jewellery designs including bohemian looks became of demand, a great variety of jewellery including long beaded necklaces, stacked silver bangles, woven bracelets, large stone rings and beaded head bands also dangle earrings. Flowers were designed into normal jewellery as wreath on top of head while daisies were predominant choice in flowers. ( vam 2009)
The 60’s were booming in US while the fashion industry was in the making. There were a lot of influences from the new designers and from pop culture impact on thinking for design and styles. The 60’s changes in fashion came about largely in type of short skirts, geometric prints and bright colours. Although a casual sophistication was entered in 60’s with Pop art and Op art influences of Mods, dress styles went through even more radical changes. Women decided to show a large part of body and skin, men showed their hair longer. Young people started to reject traditional art style in fashion, instead took to Hippie culture bohemian looks. The main aspect was introduction of pantyhose or tights, and the end of stockings. They revived in 90’s but were kept mostly in the closet.
Square, V shaped and round necked dresses which have been made with tartan wool or plain wool fabrics got together with polo neck jumpers or blouses were high in fashion and customer demand. (Lampley 2014) Other combinations of dresses had been pinafores worn with white or mustard coloured blouses. Many dresses of the coat dresses, armscye, and baby doll dresses, black polo neck sweaters etc have been some of the most famous dresses that have been in particular been envisaged for 60’s fashion. Colours of red and purple, material wool, checks of black and white were also used. All these type of dresses were worn and could be obtained from Wallis, Richards, etams, biba or Chelsea girl shops. All along this was included the Bohemian style of psychedelic floral designs and the kaftans featured in 2012 spring fashion week even! In contrast the modern fashion shows and collections do reflect alternative styles of 1960’s which represents a myriad of hemlines, trouser types, colour blends as well as clothing shapes. (Adriana 2010)
The vision of the 60’s fashion included images and motifs or alternative images which were indeed idolizing the mythic west, using traditional images. This was evidenced in western cowboys in television shows like Bonanza, movies like True Grit (1969) as well as non traditional heroes like in western movies “A fistful of Dollars”. After mid 1960s pop culture had begun to a more alternative western image to represent pluralistic American Society with culture, race, ethnicity, gender and class also revealing any exploitation with the western experience. Pop culture’s mythic west is hybridized version which is also a semi new concept. Many films and television shows feature west does not have a black and white morality nor does west revolve around masculinity. Some famous television shows such as Star Trek and Justified do not use west as the background, although audience is changing the modern day addition of West image is difficult of a modern era in American history. Pop culture is therefore to become more closely align to stock western imagery as well as symbolism with “existing story outside of 19th century setting”. (esquire 2014)
The vogue magazine in January 1962 stated about textile fashion mogul Zika Ascher as an innovator who has introduced the Mohair cult. He has been the person behind the launch of flowered prints by Christian Dior. Zika had established his own textile business in London in 1939. He commissioned famous artists to design collection of headscarves that would enlighten the dull British wardrobe after World War II. Since 1946, he applied fabrics to international industry of fashion while opening own print works and became famous for exceptionally live screen print designs. These textiles are now featured regularly.
During the 1950’s person named Terence Conran established company called the “Conran Fabrics”. In 1964 he opened his first shop in London. He ventured to showcase as also sell domestic and home furnishing items. To sell his products he sourced material from a number of companies. At the time, his items were unavailable in other places in Britain. Prices were low to attract customers to enable replacing household items. Products were showcased en masse and were within easy reach as well. By end of 60’s the company opened up nine branches and today the shop is reputed for inexpensive and appealing designs.
Susan Bosence was a teacher who later became the producer of block print and resist dyed based textile garments. She had learnt these techniques of garments earlier. These two women started on their own, with a small studio producing hand printed textiles until the 1940’s. Hull traders set a deep example as a commercial company for hand dyed based textile items. Batik was a technique of dyeing fabric which had originated in Indonesia and colonised by Dutch. Batik got popular in Europe. The 1960s saw the renewal of interest in these ethnic techniques.
Morton sundour a textile firm fixed their shop as a unit called the Edinburgh weavers. Person who was the head of the company, Alistair Morton led it to success till his death in 1963. He Commissioned artists for patterns and consequentially gained reputation for exceptional designs. Painters and graphic artists continued to design for firm in 1960s. Colours are more muted than ones sold by other traders, due to designs mostly dating from early 60’s. The firm made textile items for a traditionally based market while their artists prepared high quality interior designs.
This company was founded in 1810. Ambrose heal was the director of the company till 20th century and designed arts and crafts with modernist furniture. Worthington was consultant and invested his time to work on contemporary based textile items. He had an open mind approach when purchasing his fabric designs. They worked together and alongside designers to produce range of colour ways to print the fabrics. Heals was a leader in their field. The designs they bought exemplified changing moods of the decade. This developed from sober colours as well as geometric shapes from Pop and Op art inspired motifs. In 60’s the designs focused revival patterns and moved to super realism with the early seventies.
The magazine Design in May 1968 said for the company Hull Traders that it has a steady production of some of the most excellent modern day designs of clothing. These could easily be labelled as trendsetting.
The firm initially acquired reputation for fabric designs and employed artists as well as process of printing these on fabrics. Designers carried through their work for company based in London. All these designs are screen printed from hand, by using pigment dyes. They aimed for short run textiles production which was sold from showroom at Oxford Street in London.
Centenary collections were introduced by the firm in 1960 to celebrate at most 100 years of wall paper and textile items production. Sanderson obtained a very high reputation including John Piper’s ‘Northern Cathedral’. Artists were employed by the firm while a number of patterns as factor inputs were brought readily from Italy and US. The firm brought out and made exquisite pop pattern items later in the decade.
This company formed in 1870s as a silk weaving and fashion item producing company. This company was essentially a best known British producer of quality woven item furnishings. Eddie Squires became the director later in 1960s. His interests included all aspects of modern art from pop to space travel. V and A owns series of scrapbooks from collected materials which had inspired him earlier. He was able to produce fabrics which were in fashion during the decade. (Vam 2014)
Modern fashion of 21st century features glamour, sex, elitist, haute couture which is evidently more in sync with growing demand of youth and people wanting more individualistic expression. This is in need from knowing rights, rightful place in society, with plural tastes and a longing for better lifestyle. Pop culture is still evident from symbols, prints and colours as well as need of US to be around familiar things as in the past. Modern fashion designers like Yang li, Katie ermilo and Sally Lapointe have brought fashion into limelight while endorsing many new views; Corporations are gods, communication, technology, social media, instant fame, about today and preparation from education.
Comparison and contrast
The 60’s in comparison to the fashion of the latest modern designs is all about personal brand worth and with social mobility communications becoming deep with consumer psyche for modern fashion while colours with specific attributes and features for 60’s. This is evidently more for modern day fashion being recognized as an industry and later spreading to countries other than Europe and USA. So, for these differences one can show there are numerous characteristic aspects to the comparison. Also in contrast there are number of aspects too which make it interesting as well. With the following there have been striking contrasts;
- Western image and alternative is present for 60’s while having a small appeal in modern day fashion.
- Rebellious and Pre 60 fashion philosophy is not a mooted and highly acclaimed philosophy in present day fashion, textiles or jewellery. (Queenseyes 2011)
- The 60’s fashion movement from pop culture is widely acclaimed and progresses onwards with eventful happenings. For modern day fashion the culture is mix of wide studied and documented appeal of fashion including 60’s.
- An active movement in 60’s pop culture is now a small and sometimes included part of modern fashion.
- Spread of 60’s fashion from Britain to US while Modern day fashion spread worldwide.
- Bell bottoms, hairdos, blue jeans, colours and flower power explain the 60’s movement of pop culture as a breakaway fashion glorious fulfilling in itself. Modern day fashion is likely to be acclaimed for bringing large scale textile design in mass production, mass movement and high on designer’s ability and quality. (Anderson 2012)
- Effect’s of mass movement in pop culture is strong and vivid. Modern day fashion is essentially fast - fashion and clearly more focussed.
- Women’s empowerment and gender equality (Jim 2014) are main concepts for modern day fashion while 60’s fashion shows women in a daring skin and body show.
- Designer influence on fashion grows steadily than before. 60’s designer are only making changes in fashion while modern day designers provide plethora of designs which are mass produced for customers in a rising consumerism than compared to the 60’s.
- The peacock revolution in men’s fashion was scintillating, using colours, collarless jacket worn with slim-fitting trousers and boots. This was becoming of men’s fashion in those time almost revolutionary while not so for modern day fashion design for men.
- Pop art intended to bring images which are essentially called as abstract expressionism. Against the elitist culture using the images and art of irony, pop art had been in contrast to present day fashion.- Feminism is supported in pop culture while in modern culture it is true representation of current women status in society. So the pop culture is extrovert and showing more skin while modern fashion asserts women with sexual evolution and mastery as elitist.
- Use of fashion accessories in modern day fashion is more vivid than the 60’s. It is more of industry like packaging, finishing and computer designing with the advent of high quality fashion.
- Fashion designers providing high quality innovative garments and designs are very few and haute couture is even fewer being applicable only in France.
- Changes to fashion manufacturing are elaborate while adoption of fashion in many countries is still limited. The spread of 60’s culture in contrast was very fast and adoption of fashion quicker. Changes to fashion manufacturing methods were less in 60’s.
- Losses in fashion manufacturing were unheard of in 60’s while this is rampant alongside less authentic goods use in inexpensive products mass production.
- The impact of modern fashion is more on consumerism than culture, in 60’s the influence of pop art was more on culture and people while it affected the consumerism or gratification of desires became accepted much later.
The 60’s fashion has been a remarkably well executed roaring fashion. This has been an unceremonial and vividly not favouring any norms, indulging, body hugging, sexual, body oriented, open culture etc. typically exemplifying the need of the young people in the generation of 60’s and the circumstances which favoured the outcome in fashion. Modern day fashion as compared to the 60’s fashion has many aspects which are in stark contrast to the past fashion. While there are many comparisons which are certain to be influencing from the past fashion of 60’s to modern day ( lefsetz 2014) textile and jewellery use, one cannot deny the existence of patterns in cloth and fabric, colours, themes and motifs for both the classification of fashion trends. The celebrities, designers, artists of both the 60’s and modern day fashion are exemplifying the day of fashion design in a talented manner which is exhorted and applaud able in its own right. ( English 2013)
The research thesis/dissertation the influence of pop art on modern art has systematically used information and data from twenty and more secondary sources from web/internet. The research hypothesis of “impact on modern art by pop art is influenced” is studied and the statement provides evidence that no influence or measurable large impact sustainable to a revolution or dramatic change is discerned.
Similar results from the comparison between modern day fashion as well as pop culture influence on art is suggestive of minimal to medium impact on fashion of modern day while maximum for 60’s. The expression of the last designers in fashion also exemplifies the talent in meeting demand with much work and insight. Showcase of fashion textiles, jewellery and textiles altogether is different in modern fashion than earlier in 60’s. People recognize fashionable textile better than 60’s where the difference between talented designer look and a commonplace young design is almost new. Influence of pop art on media is still enduring and deep while modern fashion design impact is transitory. The quality of art got enriched from pop art nonetheless and one is sure of better designs and increase in quality while modern art infusion to art culture is of high quality, finesse and fabric quality.
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