How the depictions of Christ represent change between the Romanesque and Gothic periods from Gislebertus’ Last Judgment tympanum (south portal, Cathedral of St. Lazare, Autun, France, ca. 1120-1135) and the Virgin and Child with Angels window (ca. 1170, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France)
The Romanesque architecture existed between 800 and 1100 AD, was characterized by round arches and occasionally pointed arches, and was highly influenced by the religious fervor of the Midvale era (Toole, 23). The theme for which the Romanesque arts were decorated in interior of the churches was based on Christianity to depict the power and glory to God and Christ the son. The images of Christ were painted bigger than the rest of the lesser people like the angels. On the contrary, Gothic architecture lasted from 12th to the 16th century and was more advanced than the Romanesque architecture (Story, 78). Various features including ribbed fault, vertical lines pointed arch and flying buttress, characterized it.
The main contrast between the Gothic art (the “Virgin and Child with Angels window”) and the Romanesque art (Gislebertus’ “Last Judgment” tympanum) is that the artists had become more advanced and realistic in terms of using symmetry and perspective proportion and also the use of metal work, sculpture, stained glass, frescoes, embroidery and the illuminated manuscript (Nyanaponika, 56). Additionally, the Romanesque artists continued with the tradition of using the illuminated manuscripts that were very lavish and popular. The Gothic architecture was also intended to make their churches too look like heaven because if the Romans mythology that the taller the ceiling was closest to god. This was not practiced during the Romanesque since periods since their perception of being near to Christ was through reverence to Him and by showing honor on the arts (Gardner & Fred, 20).
There were also stone sculptures that were often created to represent the history of the bible and the doctrinal values of the church. Just like the Byzantine art, the sculptures were also often transcendent as a representation of the spiritual nature of the Christian theology (Shields, 32).
Towards Enlightenment. Can art foster enlightenment? Discuss how the Seated Buddha(2nd half of the 5th century, Archaeological Museum, Sarnath)and Fan Kuan’s Travelers Among Mountains and Streams (early 11th century, Northern Song Period, China, Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, National Palace Museum, Taipei) might serve as guides on “the way” to enlightenment, a prime philosophical and spiritual focus in Buddhist, Neo-Confucian and Daoist traditions. Your essay should consider earch work in its historical framework, addressing how the visual elements reflect different paths to enlightenment and harmony in belief and practice
Art can foster enlightenment as derived from the seated Buddha (2nd half of the 5th century, Archaeological Museum, Sarnath), when Buddha was talking to one of his disciples called Anathapindika "For a noble disciple who wishes to have long life, it is not befitting that he should pray for long life or take delight in so doing. He should rather follow a path of life that is conducive to longevity." (Tiwald, 56). This makes this argument agree that art can foster enlightment. This is because the teachings that are derived from the artistic works have got sense of wisdom and morality that in the long run stay to enlighten generation upon generations. Buddha uses the visual elements, which he mentions to fall under the five desirable, agreeable and pleasant things, which are beauty, long life, happiness, rebirth in the heavens and fame (Tiwald, 56). He insists that one cannot obtain such things by just kneeling and praying but rather through hard work, toil, and so this enlightenment. This makes the people to practice true beliefs and hard work (Toole, 32).
The visual elements used as described in Fan Kuan’s Travelers Among Mountains and Streams (early 11th century, Northern Song Period, China, Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, National Palace Museum, Taipei) includes a cluster of vegetation top of a tall mountain and he describes the grandeur of a wonderful landscape (Rhie & Herbert, 233). This brings about a harmony and belief in nature that it is more powerful and significant than all humans.
Story, Francis. Dimensions of Buddhist Thought: Collected Essays. Buddhist Publication Society, 2011.Print.
Nyanaponika, Hellmuth Hecker. Great Disciples of the Buddha: Their Lives, Their Works, Their Legacy. WB: Simon and Schuster, 2003. Print.
Gardner, Helen, and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner's Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. Boston, Mass.: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Shields, James M. Critical Buddhism: Engaging with Modern Japanese Buddhist Thought. Farnham: Ashgate, 2011. Internet resource.
Tiwald, Justin, and Norden B. W. Van. Readings in Later Chinese Philosophy. , 2014. Internet resource.
Rhie, Marylin M, and Herbert Franke. Early Buddhist Art of China and Central Asia: 2,1. Leiden [u.a.: Brill, 2002. Print.
Toole, John K. A Confederacy of Dunces. , 2006. Internet resource.