English East India Company was a joint stock company incorporated in 1600 and received extensive privileges to trade in India. English East India Company has organized its own lobby in the British Parliament. The aggressive policy of the company expressed in provoking famine in Bengal, the destruction of the monasteries in Tibet and administered by the Opium Wars in China. Initially, the company had 125 shareholders and the capital of 72 thousand pounds. The company managed by the Governor and the Board of Directors, who were responsible to the shareholders' meeting. English East India Company acquired the government and military functions, which has lost only in 1858. After the Indian national uprising in 1857, the British Parliament passed the Act on better management of India, and in 1874 the company was liquidated.
The Great Silk Road was the system of caravan trade routes connected from the 2nd century BC to the 15th century the countries of Eurasia - from Western Europe to China. Silk Road was although mainly, but not the only commodity that was transported on transcontinental road. From Central Asia were exported horses in China, military equipment, gold and silver, semi-precious stones and glass, leather and wool, carpets and cotton fabrics, exotic fruit - melons and peaches. The development of the Silk Road was dependent both on economic and political factors. The exchange of goods between East and West products were mainly from east to west. The purchasing power of Europeans was unstable. In the Roman Empire during its heyday silk fabrics and other Eastern goods in great demand.
Quran is a holy book of Muslims. It consists of 114 suras that have been received by Prophet Muhammad. Quran stands out among the other works of Arabic literature. In the Quran can be found not only religious precepts and sermons. Sometimes the text is a vivid figure of speech, which resembles a colorful similes literary monument of the Arab tribes. Most of the texts in the Quran imply a dialogue between God and those who oppose the new religion or varies in its adoption. In some suras can find religious and legal regulations defining "pleasing to God" way of life and behavior, some of the rules and rituals of worship. Sura outlining parables and stories in the Bible and folk stories, interspersed with the description of the coming end of the world and the day of judgment.
Melian Dialogue is a passage contained in the "History of the Peloponnesian War" by Thucydides, which describes the problem of confrontation between the people from Melos (located in the southern part of the Aegean Sea), and the Athenians in 416-415 BC. The first years of the Peloponnesian War historian spent in Athens. Thucydides wrote that the two sides held a meeting, at which they presented their arguments for and against the invasion. It was conducted between the rich representatives of Melos and envoys of Athens, as Melos people afraid to know that ordinary people can support the Athenian position.
THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
The great geographical discoveries contributed to the transition from the Middle Ages to modern times, with the Renaissance and the rise of the European nation-states. Scientists believe that the maps of distant lands, propagated with the new printing press contributed to the development of humanistic outlook and expanding horizons, creating a new era of scientific and intellectual curiosity. Promotion of Europeans in the new lands led to the creation and the rise of colonial empires.
European overseas expansion has led to a meeting earlier isolated from each other civilizations, resulting in a Columbian Exchange. Columbian Exchange implies moving of a large number of plants and animals, technology and cultural achievements, as well as nations (including forced relocation of slaves) from the Old World to America, and vice versa as a result of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492. The opening of routes between the two regions issued a wide range of new crops and livestock, which supported an increase in population in both hemispheres. The exchange also led to the spread of disease. The first important social long-term effect implied the spread of diseases (plague, chicken pox, influenza, malaria). It is known that with the discovery of America, the so-called New World to Europe has got a lot of plants and animals, radically transformed the European diet, surpassing many species in ecosystems and have made amendments to the usual methods of cultivation of crops and rearing of livestock. Most of the crops could be grown in America since the climatic conditions were much more favorable. Increasing the supply of certain products at reduced prices for these products, which makes them accessible to the entire population for the first time in history. Manufacturing of these products has also led to greater economic development in Europe. Naturally, such economic activities were negative consequences, such as the emergence and development of new diseases, demographic decline caused by epidemics, destruction of the indigenous population, and the like. Our studies show that the introduction of the potato to improve the performance of agriculture and had a strong impact on the historical population growth and urbanization of society.
In addition, many animals and plants have reached another continent unintentionally - in particular, such as rats, some species of earthworms (absent in many parts of North America) and bivalves zebra mussel - from Europe, the Colorado beetles - from America. Among the transferred plants was a lot of weeds, such as wild oats and kudzu, a series of parasitic fungi. The exchange led to the movement of goods, specific to one hemisphere to another. The Europeans brought cows, horses and sheep, as well as crops such as coffee, wheat, sugarcane and cotton. Also Europeans introduced cassava and peanuts in tropical Asia and West Africa, where they have flourished, which supported the growth in population soils which otherwise did not give high yields. On the other hand, "Food Revolution" in Europe associated with the introduction of many new crops: potatoes, corn, tomatoes, sunflowers, pineapples, cocoa, import wide variety of spices, as well as rubber, tobacco. American gold and silver spread not only in Europe, but eventually throughout the Old World.
The discovery of America led to a number of large-scale demographic consequences. In the New World it led to the growth of Caucasoid, Negroid races that were previously absent there. Native Americans (Indians) largely mixed with European or Negro, which led to the formation of racially mixed population such as mestizos, sambo. On the other hand, the mass movement of Indian genes in the Old World almost did not happen. Emigration from Latin America, Spain and Portugal were not numerous. This convergence of continents has become a prerequisite for the population explosion in the last two centuries, and played an important role in the industrial revolution. Passing through the ocean of staple food crops of the Old World to the New, and vice versa many times speeded up the development of industry and contributed to the economic growth of the country. Firstly, such an exchange has introduced novel products to the Old World, such as potatoes and corn, which have become staples in Europe because of its caloric content and relative cheapness, as well as other products, such as tomatoes or chili, which did not differ special-calorie, but contributed to the evolution of the local cuisine. Secondly, it became clear that some very popular in the Old World cultures can be grown in America, as there are suitable climate and surface conditions. The exchange demonstrates the extent to which the products made in the United States are important for the population of Europe in the world today. These products make up the bulk of the diet of most people. Due to the high calorific value of these products have been well received in all parts of the world. People can actually be healthy on a diet of potatoes, with the addition of only milk or butter, which contain two vitamins are not provided potatoes, vitamins A and D. From America were also brought products which were originally adopted as luxury products for the wealthiest segments of the population. It implies vanilla and cocoa beans. These products were completely unknown in the Old World, but later were well accepted and used in various fields, from cooking to perfumes and medicines.
Also in Europe were imported tobacco and coca leaves. Tobacco sold very quickly throughout Europe, in today's economy the tobacco business plays a very important role in the economy of many countries despite the fact that scientifically proven harm of tobacco smoking to human health. Coca leaves are used for the production of certain medications and drugs, which is again in today's society is requested, but is made in a number of countries, and sold worldwide. Very important was the discovery and delivery of quinine to Europe. Quinine and related antimalarial alkaloids (quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine) are derived from the bark of the cinchona tree, which grows in the Andes. Quinine used to treat malaria - one of the deadly diseases that time. The use of quinine as a preventive agent was initially discovered in 1841. In the subsequent use of the resulting drugs helped prevent serious epidemic and promoted demographic upsurge in Europe, Asia and Africa.
Between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, about twelve million Africans were shipped to America. Trade was caused by high demand for labor in the Americas. Forced displacement of African slaves to America reached its peak in the eighteenth century. Although most employees have entered the slavery voluntarily, many died during the transporter to America in the crowded conditions of the holds and malnutrition. These conditions contributed to the development of diseases among the slaves, which later caused the epidemic. Another important long-term social effect was the sale of slaves. Intensive trade exchange was carried out by sea.It implied a sharp increase in migration of voluntary slaves of the Old World. It allow us to understand how much the Columbian Exchange and the consequences arising out of them affected the economic growth of almost all countries of the world.
Undoubtedly, an important social effect was the fact that the Columbian Exchange greatly expanded knowledge about the world. It led to intensive development of geography. People have begun to understand the diversity of flora and fauna. It increased knowledge in economics and jurisprudence, led to scientific and technical progress. Through this exchange occurred as a cultural exchange between civilizations, it was one of the most important stages in the globalization of ecology, agriculture and culture in history. European Open continued after the Age of Discovery, as a result of which the entire surface of the globe has been mapped. According to many environmentalists, the biological expansion has brought a lot of damage to various ecosystems. But in general, this exchange has led to population growth and reduce hunger. Just for us to bring this exchange of culture, which are now the basis of our diet, reduced the impact of the yield of crops and was accompanied by population growth, such as: potatoes, corn, pumpkin, sunflower, tomato, quinoa and so on. Now metabolic processes significantly accelerated and if in the Middle Ages, Europeans dominated the exchange, now, world trade brings different kinds of plants and animals with such speed that sometimes it is difficult even to predict the effects of these changes.
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