An ‘English as a Second Language’ Collection for
Brisbane City Council Library Services
Collection Development for Library Services and Course Number
3. Initial ESL Collection Development
The “Success in Reading English: An ‘English as a Second Language’ Collection for Brisbane City Council Library Services (BCCLS)” is our group proposed library collection project. As part of the detailed overview and discussion of the library and information services, the context in which we anchor our initial ESL collection development is at the city of Brisbane Queensland, primarily; and secondarily, the online community. Brisbane, as Australia’s largest local government, has to serve its more than two million multi-cultural population (that is, Australian citizens, immigrants, refugees, etc.) in terms of library and related services.
Our team was tasked to develop an initial ESL Collection for over three years with a start-up budget of $150,000 divided, as follows: $75,000 for the first year; $50,000 for the second year; and, $25,000 for the third year. The detailed report will show how the collection will be developed, managed and evaluated over the three-year period. Issues concerning access, description and promotion were considered using an evidence-based approach. Additionally, our group used extensively the literature that we collected, synthesized and analyzed to inform our decision-making and to demonstrate that we critically and analytically applied highly appropriate resources. Further, the list of five start-up items for our initial collection were discussed as to why they were included in this part of the report.
Given BCCLS’s $150,000 budget for three years for its 33 library branches and mobile library, aside from its current collection of more than 1.3 million resources and active social networking presence, our budget for the start up collection is intended for Brisbane’s active multicultural population, specifically, ESL residents (Brisbane City Council Library Services, 2011, p.3). The collection offers a balanced range of resources, flexibility, and equal access of information, especially among individuals in the community with special needs (Brisbane City Council Library Services, 2011, p.2). The increasing library visits, Wi-Fi use, and customer satisfaction are evidences that our collection should continue to offer Brisbane community members access to library resources, especially of the disadvantaged group (Brisbane City Council, 2013, p. 82).
3.2 Tools and methods of selection
The tools and methods of selection used in this part of the report are based on BCCLS’ aim, goals and objectives, as well as, statistical reports about library membership or usage, library searches where our proposed materials are not yet available, online searches on journal subscription publication sites, online stores (e.g., Amazon), etc. The proposed five and additional 25 items were included in the collection because of their relevance to beginner/illiterate, intermediate/semi-literate, and advanced/literate (but not fluent) ESL users. All the items included in the proposed collection were included because they will meet the immediate needs of the learners. It has been noted that due to increasing membership, visits and remote access of library resources, there is a need for the ESL start-up collection. Statistics, reports and literature shows community trends and consultation made regarding the relevance of previous library collections to the community. Since there are approximately 2% of the total Brisbane population that are non-English speakers (that is, they cannot speak English well or not at all), they are the potential user group for our proposed collection (ABS, 2013a, cf. Appendix B).
3.3 Selection criteria
The selection criteria are based on the Guidelines and Standards for Queensland Public Libraries, bibliographic consideration, reviews, publication format, and community profile and needs analysis of prospective users, which are considered the most important component of any library collection. The library users for the start-up collection are the ESL community groups consisting of the illiterate, semi-literate and literate users. The collection, which could be used as BCCLS’s core subject area’s library program, is to be used to strengthen ESL speakers’ quality of social lifestyle in a vibrant Brisbane community through a shared English language (Brisbane City Council Library Services, 2011).
The formats of the start-up collection consist of books, interactive CD-ROMs, and DVDs with subtitles depending on the language of the ESL users (Brisbane City Council Library Services, 2014a). The formats of the collection are intended to meet more effectively users’ information needs considering Brisbane’s growing library membership and users. The collection also include electronic and print genres specific to language instruction and reading practices. Generally, the collection selected consists of print, audio-visual, digital formats, URLs, and apps.
3.5 List of key resources in initial ESL collection
The list of key five resources in the initial ESL collection are, as follows:
- Edwards, Susan. (2011). Living in Australia – Beginner: a general English coursebook aligned to Certificate 1 in Spoken and Written English. New South Wales: Adult Migrant English Service. This item has been selected to be part of the key five resources for the collection because it is the first book in the Living in Australia series of text-based course books, which has accompanying CDs to provide illiterate ESL learners with practice in all aspects of the English language.
- Collins (2013). Work on your vocabulary; Advanced (C1) London: Collins This resource uses authentic, current, and contextualized language usage examples to teach vocabulary through 30 units with practise exercises to support learner memory and confidence in both written and spoken English
- Hipwell, P. and Comiskey. C. (2012). How to write what you want to say: a guide for those students who know what they want to say but can’t find the words. Brisbane: Boolarong Press. This book assists learners in English by providing sentence starters and connectives to improve ESL users’ writing skills.
- MyLanguage.gov.au (2011) http://www.mylanguage.gov.au/ is also selected as one of the first of the five collected items because it is a website, which won the Microsoft Information Category of the National Multicultural Marketing Awards, that promotes the use of digital format to develop and strengthen the culturally and linguistically diverse communities.
- McKenry, R. and Mitchell, B. (2009) SoundEnglish (series). Victoria: Publishing & Data. SoundEnglish is an easy-to-follow series of 50 books, software packs and apps that provides adults, teens and other learners who are new to Australian English with suitable reading material.
Based on the selection criteria, the additional essential or core items for the proposed collection to meet users’ needs are outlined and categorized below:
Printed and Online Books
- Baker, A., & Goldstein, S. (2008). Pronunciation Pairs Teacher's Book. Cambridge University Press. This item aids the adult in learning how to pronounce words in English language.
- Fries, C. (1945). Teaching and learning English as a foreign language. University of Michigan Press. This material by Fries is useful for both teacher and learners of English language.
- Garrison, D. (1979). Apostles of culture: The public librarian and American society, 1876-1920. University of Wisconsin Press. The article focuses on the evolution of public libraries in the industrializing society.
- Harmer, J. (1991). The practice of English language teaching. London/New York. This item by Harmer is useful for teachers who teach English language, therefore, adults who will enroll in classes to learn English as a second language will benefit from it.
- Lakoff, R. T. (2004). Language and woman's place: text and commentaries. Oxford University Press. The document overview the struggle of women to gain a position in the society and symbolizes the fact that women have made great strides to reach where they stand now.
- Moran, R. T., Harris, P. R., & Moran, S. V. (2007). Managing cultural differences: global leadership strategies for cross-cultural business success. Amsterdam: Routledge. Although this book focuses on achieving success in business across cultures, it details strategies to deal with cultural differences which would be prudent for the staff developing the Success in Reading English collection to be aware of.
- O'Grady, John. (1965). Aussie English: an explanation of the Australian idiom. Sydney: Ure Smith. A must-read book for ESL learners to learn the manner of speaking natural to native Aussie speakers.
- Peel, Robin. (2000). Questions of English ethics, aesthetics, rhetoric, and the formation of the subject in England, Australia, and the United State. London: Routledge. Learn more about the variety of native Englishes spoken in their country of origin.
- Richterich, R., & Chancerel, J. L. (1980). Identifying the needs of adults learning a foreign language. Oxford: Pergamon Press. This book by Richterich and Chancerel covers how to study and teach a foreign language.
- Shweder, R. A., Minow, M., & Markus, H. R. (Eds.). (2004). Engaging Cultural Differences: The Multicultural Challenge in Liberal Democracies. Russell Sage Foundation. Collection development policies (CPD) for the Brisbane city library requires a thorough understanding of the perspective user group that belongs to different communities and countries and this article is a reflection of the same.
Printed and Online Journals
- Bailey, N., Madden, C., & Krashen, S. D. (1974). Is there a “natural sequence” in adult second language learning?. Language learning, 24(2), 235-243. This item explores the difficulties that adults experience when learning English as a second language.
- Duncker, E. (2002, July). Cross-cultural usability of the library metaphor. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on Digital libraries (pp. 223-230). ACM. Brisbane city council library’s collection development policies would be influenced by this text as it relates to the cross-cultural context of its digital libraries.
- Hansen, D.S. (2002). The public library between integration and cultural diversity. Scandinavian library quarterly. Retrieved from http://slq.nu/?article=the-public-library-between-integration-and-cultural-diversity. The article would be used to compare public libraries with other cultural institutions.
- Josey, E. J. (1993). The challenges of cultural diversity in the recruitment of faculty and students from diverse backgrounds. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 302-311. Although the document is not linked to the subject of CDP directly but it highlights the importance of multicultural environment and the need to foster professional librarianship.
- Moll, L. C. (1992). Bilingual classroom studies and community analysis: Some recent trends. Educational researcher, 21(2), 20-24. The proposed CDP’s priority is to understand the pattern of learning the language “English” and create a collection accordingly – and this article gives a perspective to the above mentioned opinion and describes how research about collaborative working could be used to enhance instruction.
- Oxford, R. L., & Scarcella, R. C. (1994). Second language vocabulary learning among adults: State of the art in vocabulary instruction. System, 22(2), 231-243. Reports how to develop better vocabulary as an adult ESL learners.
- Peregoy, S. F., Boyle, O. F., & Phillabaum, S. (2007). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for K-12 teachers. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 214. This book is useful to scholars of second language reading as it provides a balance between bottom-up and top-down approaches.
- Putnam, R. D. (2007). E pluribus unum: Diversity and community in the twenty‐first century the 2006 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture. Scandinavian political studies, 30(2), 137-174. The document provides a solution to a number of possible consequences while developing the CDPs of Brisbane city council.
- Resnicow, K., Baranowski, T., Ahluwalia, J. S., & Braithwaite, R. L. (1999). Cultural sensitivity in public health: defined and demystified. Ethnicity & disease, 9(1), 10. The document presents the importance of discussion of cultural sensitiveness in various health programs.
- Savignon, S. J. (1991). Communicative language teaching: State of the art.TESOL quarterly, 25(2), 261-278. Addition of this article was important because of its relevancy to the report because Teaching English as a second language (TESOL) is known to be one of the most effective techniques to enhance the student’s English (speaking, writing and understanding) capabilities.
Websites, Apps, and Audio-Visual Materials
- Association of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (ATESOL) (2014). Retrieved from http://www.atesolact.org.au/esl-resources.html. A compilation of resources over the Web that will help ESL readers and learners know more about other languages (that is, their own).
- Georgia State University (2011) Strategies for Helping Students Learn a Foreign Language Retrieved 22 April 2014, from http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwrld/6429.html. Proven strategies used by language experts to help ESL learners learn a foreign language in a easy-to-follow manner.
- Intercultural Training Australia (ITA) (2014). Retrieved from http://www.interculturaltraining.com.au/links.html. Know more about the benefits of learning different cultures as they relate to one’s own while living in Australia.
- McAlpine, R. (2006) From Plain English to Global English. Retrieved http://www.webpagecontent.com/arc_archive/139/5/. Learn cross-cultural communication with the use of Global English by using short sentences, avoiding over use of mini-words, etc.
- The 9 Best Mobile Apps for Your ESL Students (2014). Retrieved from http://busyteacher.org/12155-9-best-mobile-apps-for-esl-students.html. Apps recommended for use by ESL students who wish to learn Australian English while on the go.
4. Collection Management
4.1 Description of ESL collection
The “Success in Reading English: An ‘English as a Second Language’ Collection for Brisbane City Council Library Services (BCCLS)” is intended to meet the needs of Brisbane’s multi-culturally and linguistically diverse growing ESL users. The collection includes a variety of fiction and nonfiction items for practical, literary and pleasure reading needs of ESL users. Each item has its level of difficulty: beginner, intermediate and advanced. The beginner items are for the illiterate; the intermediate items are for semi-literate; and, the advanced items are for the literate users who lack English fluency.
4.2 Discovery of ESL collection
Since the ESL collection is drawn from BCCLS’ current general collection, their discovery is via the library information and management system. Likewise, users can go to any BCCLS’ branch and ask librarians about the collection intended specifically for their needs. Additionally, given consultations with the community, Brisbane community members are aware where to get the information that they need. BCCLS’ uses every means for its promotional, campaign, or discovery of its library resources for a number of users and members. Moreover, users suggest what reading materials that they need should they visit again the library or access information through BCCLS’ online library system.
4.3 Access management
Access management is through the existing BCCLS’ traditional and online systems. The Success in Reading English will be a floating collection, such that the resources may be held at various or all library branches. Users, who may request for physical resources through client booking, will have said materials delivered to their respective requesting branches on a scheduled basis. Nevertheless, given the ease and convenience of Brisbane’s online library system and interconnectedness of information (e.g., demographics of Brisbane’s target library user groups), it is straightforward to determine which branch needs a specific resource.
4.3.1 Storage of ESL collection
All the physical collection is housed inside the library, except for borrowed materials. On the other hand, access to websites is available to anyone, but only registered BCCLS members have special privileges and access to online subscriptions. Storage of the ESL collection is in a library facility (e.g., library section or bookshelves) that are for target ESL, NESB, or CALD learners or groups.
4.3.2 Arrangement of ESL collection
The ESL collection are arranged in accordance to the language of the group. If the group numbers 2,500 or more, they will have a separate section in the Language Area (Brisbane City Council Library Services, 2011). On the other hand, depending on the collective numbers of other users for any specific language other than English, they will be designated in the CALD section of BCCLS’ Language Area.
4.4 Marketing and promotion
The marketing and promotion of the Success in Reading English collection is given below:
4.4.1 Internal marketing
The internal marketing and promotion of the collection is done mostly in the traditional way. Library guests or users who belong to specific language group are informed through posters, brochures and leaflets about the availability of new items.
4.4.2 External marketing
The external marketing and promotion of the collection is done mostly online. Library members and guests who belong to specific language group is informed through texts, email, subscription, or BCCLS website about the availability of new items.
4.5 Other issues
BCCLS adheres to the highest observance and exercise of all forms and manners of intellectual, social, moral, etc. integrity. Other than library personnel who are expert in censorship, the collection does not include any part, section or whole resources that have culturally, linguistically, religious, politically and socially obscene or unacceptable contents. Considering the strict selection criteria and techniques that our group applied in the selection of each of the items, we have not included anything condemnable for public viewing, distribution and/or use. In case of offensive contents, any library user should report immediately the matter to the library head or other authorized library staff for consideration, study, de-selection, etc.
4.5.2 De-selection of materials
Collection items rendered censored, damaged, sub-standard, or irrelevant are subject to de-selection.
4.5.3 User feedback on collection
There will be a mechanism for user feedback on collection. Users are encouraged to give their comments on BCCLS’ branch Comment Box or via Twitter, Facebook, Youtube, or other online social networks (Brisbane City Council Library Services, 2014b).
5. Ongoing Collection Development and Management
5.1 Three-year plan
During the three-year plan, there is an ongoing collection development and management. Some items in the collection will get automatic and manual updates depending on the terms and conditions of the authors, publisher and/or copyright owners. Likewise, given the advances in technology use, collection that require keeping abreast with development will likewise be considered for demonstration and/or use.
5.1.1 Foci for three-year plan
The foci for the three-year plan are on filling the gaps in the area of Success in Reading English. It is important that only items that meet the specific needs of the ESL community should be considered. Likewise, any issues about intellectual property, copyright, currency of materials, weeding, stock replacement, and sustainability should be addressed right away.
Constraints and limitations regarding the inclusion of additional items in the Success in Reading English should be avoided as much as possible. No items that will possibly hinder or prevent ESL users from taking of the full benefits of language learning should be entertained. Constraints and limitations should be removed so that the library program will be effective in the long run,
There are no other issue related to the above, except that emerging communicating and reporting issues will be dealt with at the onset and provide immediate resolutions to prevent their re-occurrence in the future.
The budget of $150,000 for three-year period is intended primarily for the five key items up to additional 25 collection resources. However, considering that there is a tranche: $75,000 for the first year, $50,000 for the second year, and $25,000 for the third year; the group will only consider the initial 200 item copies and the subsequent maintenance rate of 100 items per year (World Languages Collection Policy, 2007). The underlying reason for this budget decision, allocation, and use is to purchase or subscribe only to relevant and high quality ESL resources.
The collection will be evaluated quarterly of each year to examine how effective they are meeting the specific needs of each ESL group. The evaluation of an item is based on total number of users who used it, total hours it was used, and overall rating of the user. Additionally, the item under consideration will also be evaluated if it was used for related purposes, such as library ESL training programs, positive feedback obtained from users, and so on.
The “Success in Reading English: An ‘English as a Second Language’ Collection for Brisbane City Council Library Services (BCCLS)” is intended for ESL learners. They are expected to get the full benefits using each item. The budgetary allocation of $150,000 for the three-year period will be on a tranche basis, hence, any excess in the first and second years will be carried over to the next year until the third year only where the total budget would have already been consumed for the purposes of effectively meeting the needs of second language learners. The first five list of items mentioned above is composed of different formats so that learners have a variety to choose from. The list has been selected using a strict yet standard criteria.
As of the moment, there are no objective recommendations except when the initial evaluation period starts until the end of the three-year period.
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